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  • 1
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Cis-peptide bond ; Pattern research ; Prediction ; Proline ; Protein structure
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Voronoi volumes ; packing of atoms ; density ; proteins ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: In computing the volume occupied by atoms and the density in proteins, one is faced with the problem of intersecting spheres. To estimate either, the space between the atoms has to be divided according to the location of the atoms relative to each other. Various methods, based on Voronoi's idea of approximating the atomic space by polyhedra, have been proposed for this purpose. Comparing procedures concerned with the allocation of space among distinct atoms, we observe different partitionings of space, with deviations of more than 100% for particular atoms. Furthermore, we find that the separating planes of different Voronoi procedures do not meet the intersection circles of covalently linked atoms. This leads to a misallocation of space of up to 7% for atom pairs that largely differ in atomic size (e.g., C - H). Several algorithms are negatively affected by small unallocated polyhedra (“vertex error”). These effects are cumulative for a small protein up to a loss of some 60 Å3 of total volume, which would correspond to the deletion of one complete residue. To overcome these errors, instead of using dividing planes between the atoms, we use curved surfaces, defined as the set of those geometrical loci with equal orthogonal distance to the surfaces of the van der Waals spheres under consideration. The proposed dividing surface meets not only the intersection circle of the two van der Waals spheres but also the intersection circle of the two spheres enlarged by an arbitrary value (e.g., radius of water). This hyperbolic surface enveloping the Voronoi cell can be easily constructed and offers the following advantages: no misallocation of volume for atoms of different size, no vertex error, geometrically reasonable allocation of the volume among atoms, avoidance of discontinuities between neighboring atoms, and improved applicability to water-accessible protein surfaces. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.   J Comput Chem 18: 1113-1123
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE ; CARE ; AGE ; WOMENS HEALTH
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Searches for sex and gender-specific publications are complicated by the absence of a specific algorithm within search engines and by the lack of adequate archives to collect the retrieved results. We previously addressed this issue by initiating the first systematic archive of medical literature containing sex and/or gender-specific analyses. This initial collection has now been greatly enlarged and re-organized as a free user-friendly database with multiple functions: GenderMedDB (http://gendermeddb.charite.de). DESCRIPTION: GenderMedDB retrieves the included publications from the PubMed database. Manuscripts containing sex and/or gender-specific analysis are continuously screened and the relevant findings organized systematically into disciplines and diseases. Publications are furthermore classified by research type, subject and participant numbers. More than 11,000 abstracts are currently included in the database, after screening more than 40,000 publications. The main functions of the database include searches by publication data or content analysis based on pre-defined classifications. In addition, registrants are enabled to upload relevant publications, access descriptive publication statistics and interact in an open user forum. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, GenderMedDB offers the advantages of a discipline-specific search engine as well as the functions of a participative tool for the gender medicine community.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24904731
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  • 4
    Abstract: A recent study demonstrated antifungal activity of dark chemical matter (DCM) compounds that were otherwise inactive in more than 100 HTS assays. These compounds were proposed to possess unique activity and 'clean' safety profiles. Here, we present an outlook of the promiscuity and safety of these compounds by retrospectively comparing their chemical and biological spaces with those of drugs. Significant amounts of marketed drugs (16%), withdrawn drugs (16.5%) and natural compounds (3.5%) share structural identity with DCM. Compound promiscuity assessment indicates that dark matter compounds could potentially interact with multiple biological targets. Further, thousands of DCM compounds showed presence of frequent-hitting pan-assay interference compound (PAINS) substructures. In light of these observations, filtering these compounds from screening libraries can be an irrevocable loss.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28709991
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  • 5
    Abstract: Kinase inhibitors are important cancer therapeutics. Polypharmacology is commonly observed, requiring thorough target deconvolution to understand drug mechanism of action. Using chemical proteomics, we analyzed the target spectrum of 243 clinically evaluated kinase drugs. The data revealed previously unknown targets for established drugs, offered a perspective on the "druggable" kinome, highlighted (non)kinase off-targets, and suggested potential therapeutic applications. Integration of phosphoproteomic data refined drug-affected pathways, identified response markers, and strengthened rationale for combination treatments. We exemplify translational value by discovering SIK2 (salt-inducible kinase 2) inhibitors that modulate cytokine production in primary cells, by identifying drugs against the lung cancer survival marker MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase), and by repurposing cabozantinib to treat FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. This resource, available via the ProteomicsDB database, should facilitate basic, clinical, and drug discovery research and aid clinical decision-making.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29191878
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  • 6
    Abstract: Regular monitoring of drug regulatory agency web sites and similar resources for information on new drug approvals and changes to legal status of marketed drugs is impractical. It requires navigation through several resources to find complete information about a drug as none of the publicly accessible drug databases provide all features essential to complement in silico drug discovery. Here, we propose SuperDRUG2 (http://cheminfo.charite.de/superdrug2) as a comprehensive knowledge-base of approved and marketed drugs. We provide the largest collection of drugs (containing 4587 active pharmaceutical ingredients) which include small molecules, biological products and other drugs. The database is intended to serve as a one-stop resource providing data on: chemical structures, regulatory details, indications, drug targets, side-effects, physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. We provide a 3D-superposition feature that facilitates estimation of the fit of a drug in the active site of a target with a known ligand bound to it. Apart from multiple other search options, we introduced pharmacokinetics simulation as a unique feature that allows users to visualise the 'plasma concentration versus time' profile for a given dose of drug with few other adjustable parameters to simulate the kinetics in a healthy individual and poor or extensive metabolisers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29140469
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  • 7
    Abstract: The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are major players in drug metabolism. More than 2,000 mutations have been described, and certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to have a large impact on CYP activity. Therefore, CYPs play an important role in inter-individual drug response and their genetic variability should be factored into personalized medicine. To identify the most relevant polymorphisms in human CYPs, a text mining approach was used. We investigated their frequencies in different ethnic groups, the number of drugs that are metabolized by each CYP, the impact of CYP SNPs, as well as CYP expression patterns in different tissues. The most important polymorphic CYPs were found to be 1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 2C19. Thirty-four common allele variants in Caucasians led to altered enzyme activity. To compare the relevant Caucasian SNPs with those of other ethnicities a search in 1,000 individual genomes was undertaken. We found 199 non-synonymous SNPs with frequencies over one percent in the 1,000 genomes, many of them not described so far. With knowledge of frequent mutations and their impact on CYP activities, it may be possible to predict patient response to certain drugs, as well as adverse side effects. With improved availability of genotyping, our data may provide a resource for an understanding of the effects of specific SNPs in CYPs, enabling the selection of a more personalized treatment regimen.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24340040
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  • 8
    Abstract: To perform their various functions, protein surfaces often have to interact with each other in a specific way. Usually, only parts of a protein are accessible and can act as binding sites. Because proteins consist of polypeptide chains that fold into complex three-dimensional shapes, binding sites can be divided into two different types: linear sites that follow the primary amino acid sequence and discontinuous binding sites, which are made up of short peptide fragments that are adjacent in spatial proximity. Such discontinuous binding sites dominate protein-protein interactions, but are difficult to identify. To meet this challenge, we combined a computational, structure-based approach and an experimental, high-throughput method. SUPERFICIAL is a program that uses protein structures as input and generates peptide libraries to represent the protein's surface. A large number of the predicted peptides can be simultaneously synthesised applying the SPOT technology. The results of a binding assay subsequently help to elucidate protein-protein interactions; the approach is applicable to any kind of protein. The crystal structure of the complex of hen egg lysozyme with the well-characterised murine IgG1 antibody HyHEL-5 is available, and the complex is known to have a discontinuous binding site. Using SUPERFICIAL, the entire surface of lysozyme was translated into a peptide library that was synthesised on a cellulose membrane using the SPOT technology and tested against the HyHEL-5 antibody. In this way, it was possible to identify two peptides (longest common sequence and peptide 19) that represented the discontinuous epitope of lysozyme.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23280614
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  • 9
    Keywords: ALGORITHM ; DATABASE ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; PEPTIDE REPERTOIRE ; HLA ; ELECTRON-TRANSFER DISSOCIATION ; DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY ; REACTION SUBSEQUENT ; CONTACT ALLERGY ; ABACAVIR
    Abstract: Immune mediated adverse drug reactions (IM-ADRs) remain a significant source of patient morbidity that have more recently been shown to be associated with specific class I and/or II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Abacavir-induced hypersensitivity syndrome is a CD8+ T cell dependent IM-ADR that is exclusively mediated by HLA-B*57:01. We and others have previously shown that abacavir can occupy the floor of the peptide binding groove of HLA-B*57:01 molecules, increasing the affinity of certain self peptides resulting in an altered peptide-binding repertoire. Here, we have identified another drug, acyclovir, which appears to act in a similar fashion. As with abacavir, acyclovir showed a dose dependent increase in affinity for peptides with valine and isoleucine at their C-terminus. In agreement with the binding studies, HLA-B*57:01 peptide-elution studies performed in the presence of acyclovir revealed an increased number of endogenously bound peptides with a C-terminal isoleucine. Accordingly, we have hypothesized that acyclovir acts by the same mechanism as abacavir, although our data also suggest the overall effect is much smaller: the largest changes of peptide affinity for acyclovir were 2-5 fold, whereas for abacavir this effect was as much as 1000-fold. Unlike abacavir, acyclovir is not known to cause IM-ADRs. We conclude that the modest effect of acyclovir on HLA binding affinity in contrast to the large effect of abacavir is insufficient to trigger a hypersensitivity syndrome. We further support this by functional in vitro studies where acyclovir, unlike abacavir, was unable to produce an increase in IFN-gamma upon expansion of HLA-B*57:01+ PBMCs from healthy donors. Using abacavir and acyclovir as examples we therefore propose an in vitro pre-clinical screening strategy, whereby thresholds can be applied to MHC-peptide binding assays to determine the likelihood that a drug could cause a clinically relevant IM-ADR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26024233
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  • 10
    Abstract: Here, we present an updated version of CancerResource, freely available without registration at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/care. With upcoming information on target expression and mutations in patients' tumors, the need for systems supporting decisions on individual therapy is growing. This knowledge is based on numerous, experimentally validated drug-target interactions and supporting analyses such as measuring changes in gene expression using microarrays and HTS-efforts on cell lines. To enable a better overview about similar drug-target data and supporting information, a series of novel information connections are established and made available as described in the following. CancerResource contains about 91 000 drug-target relations, more than 2000 cancer cell lines and drug sensitivity data for about 50 000 drugs. CancerResource enables the capability of uploading external expression and mutation data and comparing them to the database's cell lines. Target genes and compounds are projected onto cancer-related pathways to get a better overview about how drug-target interactions benefit the treatment of cancer. Features like cellular fingerprints comprising of mutations, expression values and drug-sensitivity data can promote the understanding of genotype to drug sensitivity associations. Ultimately, these profiles can also be used to determine the most effective drug treatment for a cancer cell line most similar to a patient's tumor cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26590406
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