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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle afferents ; Joint nerve ; Popliteus spindles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The properties of some receptors with afferent fibres in the cat's posterior knee joint nerve have been examined, especially those discharging tonically with the joint in intermediate positions between full flexion and extension. Some of these receptors behave like muscle spindles, and respond to manoeuvres which stretch popliteus muscle. Both in single unit and whole nerve recordings their discharge pauses during a popliteus twitch, and can be strikingly augmented by tetanic stimulation of a number of popliteus fusimotor fibres isolated from ventral root filaments. The action of succinylcholine on these receptors closely resembles its effect on popliteus spindle units with fibres sited normally in the popliteus nerve. Other units with properties suggesting origin from popliteus tendon organs were also observed; their fibres and those of the spindle units conducted at Group I velocity. It is concluded that some afferent fibres from popliteus spindles and possibly tendon organs commonly pursue an aberrant course in the posterior articular nerve of the knee joint.
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  • 4
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    Experimental brain research 45 (1982), S. 364-370 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindles ; Slow axons ; Dynamic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Responses of muscle spindles of the iliofibularis muscle of the frogLitoria aurea have been recorded during single shock and repetitive stimulation of single functional motor axons. Repetitive stimulation of axons which innervated slow muscle, and on four occasions, axons which innervated twitch muscle, produced a large increase in the dynamic response of the spindle to a ramp-and-hold stretch. While extrafusal slow muscle did not respond to a single motor volley, some spindles did, especially if at the same time the muscle was being stretched. In an explanation of the effect of muscle stretch on responses of spindles to slow motor volleys it was proposed that stretch acted to reduce the internal motion in muscle fibres produced by a non-uniform distribution of sarcomere lengths. It was proposed that this kind of effect may account for dynamic fusimotor actions in all vertebrate spindles.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Development ; Stretch ; Vibration ; Kitten
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Discharges of muscle spindle afferents from the soleus muscle were studied in kittens aged 1–21 days and in adult cats. Vibration applied longitudinally to the tendon elicited one impulse for each cycle of vibration over the range 1–200 Hz for the kittens and up to 450 Hz for the adult. Threshold amplitudes were generally higher in the kitten than in the adult. In response to large ramp and hold stretches applied at long muscle lengths kitten spindles showed rate saturation during the length change. Dynamic index, that is the peak rate during the length change minus the rate at the final length became progressively smaller at longer muscle lengths. No sign of saturation was seen at comparable muscle lengths in the adult. It is suggested that in the newborn the bag1 intrafusal fibre is not functional and that the dynamic response is produced only by the afferent terminals on the bag2 fibre. Another difference between kitten and adult was the length sensitivity measured under dynamic conditions. This increased much more steeply with stretch rate in the kitten. One possible explanation for the higher dynamic length sensitivity is a lack of elastic fibres surrounding intrafusal fibres of immature spindles.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Tendon organ ; Tension ; Proprioception ; Contraction ; Afferent ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Here we report observations on the sense of muscle tension in human subjects and compare them with responses of tendon organs in cat hindlimb muscles. Human subjects learned under visual guidance to estimate a 4% maximum voluntary contraction (m.v.c.) of elbow flexors of one arm. When they were able to reproduce this force reliably without visual feedback, they repeated the estimation immediately after a 5 second m.v.c or a 5 second period of relaxation. In a second experiment the 4% m.v.c was generated under visual control with one arm, and matched with the other, test arm, without visual feedback. The matching task was then repeated after test arm conditioning. In both experiments subjects reported an accurate match using significantly more than the reference force (“overmatched”) after an m.v.c. The overmatching was greatest during the first 5 second period following the conditioning contraction, and during the subsequent 20 seconds it gradually declined to near reference levels. The size of the matching error was directly proportional to the duration of the conditioning contraction. In the first experiment extension of the arm immediately following conditioning increased the error, in the second it slightly decreased it, although tension continued to be overmatched. In a series of experiments on the soleus muscle of anaesthetised cats responses of tendon organs to 10% of maximum contraction were seen to drop sharply when preceded by a conditioning maximum contraction. The time course of recovery was comparable to the decline in matching error in the human experiments. In conclusion, one explanation for the error in force matching seen in human subjects after an m.v.c is that sensitivity of tendon organs has been lowered as a result of the activity generated during the conditioning contraction.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Fusimotor ; Extrafusal ; Motor unit ; Contraction ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Normally, γ motoneurones innervate only the intrafusal fibres of muscle spindles. This is a report of sprouting of γ motoneurones to innervate extrafusal muscle fibres following partial denervation of the soleus muscle of kittens. In eight newborn animals, the L7 ventral root was cut on one side under anaesthesia and the animals were then allowed to recover. At approximately 100 days of age animals were reanaesthetised and a study made of mechanical properties of motor units whose axons ran in the S1 ventral root and supplied the partially denervated soleus muscle. Evidence was obtained for sprouting of all surviving α motoneurones. In addition, in four experiments axons conducting within the γ range, on stimulation, produced measurable tension. In one experiment, stimulation of one such γ axon also produced specific fusimotor effects on four afferents identified as coming from primary endings of muscle spindles. The γ axon was therefore a fusimotor axon. The effect observed on stimulation of the γ axon suggested a largely dynamic action. Other examples of γ axons were encountered that on stimulation produced tension, but which could not be specifically associated with spindles. In addition, a number of γ axons that did not develop tension were shown, on stimulation, to have fusimotor effects that were static in action. It is concluded that in extensively denervated muscles γ motoneurones may sometimes sprout to innervate extrafusal fibres. The mechanical properties of the extrafusal fibres innervated by such γ axons were similar to those of ordinary α motor units.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Tendon jerk ; Fusimotor ; Reflex Muscle spindle ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This is a study of the tendon jerk reflex elicited by a brief stretch applied to the triceps surae muscle group in the chloralose-anaesthetised cat. The size of the recorded reflex depended on stretch parameters (optimum at 300 μm amplitude at a rate of 100 mm/s) and on how the muscle had been conditioned. A reflex elicited after a conditioning contraction at the test length was often twice as large as after a contraction carried out at a length longer than the test length. This difference was attributed to the amount of slack introduced in the intrafusal fibres of muscle spindles by conditioning. The question was posed, did ongoing fusimotor activity exert any influence on the size of the tendon jerk? Depolarization indices (DPI) were calculated from responses of muscle spindles to stretch and correlated with the level of reflex tension. Values of DPI obtained from afferent responses with and without repetitive stimulation of identified fusimotor fibres suggested that with the stretch parameters used here the main influence of fusimotor activity was that it removed any pre-existing slack in muscle spindles and thereby increased reflex tension. In the absence of intrafusal slack, stimulation of static and dynamic fusimotor fibres had little additional influence on the size of the reflex. It is concluded that much of the variability typically seen with tendon jerks is due to muscle history effects. Since in muscles which have not been deliberately conditioned there is commonly some slack present in spindles, activity in fusimotor fibres is likely to reduce slack and therefore increase reflex size.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Fusimotor Succinyl choline ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This report describes the effects of succinylcholine (SCh) on the secondary endings of cat soleus muscle spindles and attempts to explain them in terms of the action of the drug on intrafusal fibres. All but 2 of 41 secondary endings studied in detail showed a significant response to a single intravenous injection of 200 μg kg-1 SCh. This consisted of a rise in the resting rate or development of a resting discharge if the spindle had previously been silent and an increase in the response to stretch. The increases in the responses to stretch were weaker than those observed for primary endings of spindles, but were much larger than those of tendon organs, which showed very little effect with this concentration of drug. The response to SCh showed two features consistent with its action being mediated via an intrafusal muscle fibre contraction rather than a direct depolarising action on the afferent nerve ending. In the presence of SCh, secondary endings were able to maintain a discharge during muscle shortening at rates, on average, more than 5 times greater than under control conditions. Secondly, the increase in spindle discharge produced by SCh showed a length dependence similar to that for fusimotor stimulation. Further support for the action of SCh being principally via an intrafusal fibre contraction was provided by the observation that its effects were abolished by the neuromuscular blocker gallamine triethiodide. The time course of recovery of SCh responses, following their blockade by gallamine, was much slower than recovery of extrafusal tension and closely paralleled that for the recovery of fusimotor responses. In three separate experiments on the medial gastrocnemius muscle the possibility that SCh may exert an excitatory action on spindle sensory endings through the liberation of potassium ions from the muscle was tested by tetanic stimulation of the muscle. This had no detectable excitatory effect. Several observations were made on the effect of SCh on responses of cutaneous receptors. SCh did not change levels of spontaneous activity or responses to mechanical stimulation of either slowly or rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors. It was argued for both tendon organs and cutaneous receptors that if SCh had a direct action on the nerve ending at the concentrations used here, some responses of these receptors to the drug might have been expected. All of the above supports the view that secondary endings of spindles are able to respond to SCh by the development of an intrafusal fibre contracture. The question of the intrafusal fibre types involved is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Deafferentation ; Cross reinnervation ; Contractile properties ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cross-reinnervations were effected between the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles in the cat hind limb. At the same time dorsal root section or ganglionectomy was performed over segments L6-S1. Completeness of the deafferentation was subsequently confirmed either by dissection or by dorsal root recording. The isometric and forcevelocity properties of the muscles were measured. In animals with a unilateral cross plus deafferentation the conversion of the contractile properties of the normally slow-twitch soleus to those resembling a fast-twitch muscle was typical of that seen with an intact afferent supply. In cats with a bilateral cross-reinnervation and unilateral deafferentation there was no significant difference in the degree of transformation between the two sides. It is concluded that at least for the conversion of a slow-twitch to a fast-twitch muscle afferent feedback does not play a major role.
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