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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract About 160 kb of DNA were cloned from the 2B region of the X chromosome, where the early ecdysone puff develops and the ecs locus is located. On the physical map of this sequence the positions of 13 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints interfering with both puff development and the ecs locus proximally and distally, were plotted by means of in situ hybridization. The maximal size of the ecs locus is about 100 kb (between the breakpoint of In(1)Hw 49c and the proximal end of Df(1)St472) The DNA sequences essential for normal puffing are located within the ecs locus between the In(1)br lt103 and Df(1)St472 breakpoints and comprise about 65 kb. Thus the puff develops as a result of ecs activation. Since Df(1)P154, which reduces the puff size and removes the proximal part of the ecs locus, does not prevent puff induction by ecdysone, while removing the distal part of the locus by Df(1)St469 completely stops development of the puff, we conclude that the regulatory zone of the locus, which reacts to hormone is located in the distal parts of both the puff and the locus, proximal to the breakpoint of In(1)br lt103 .Since In(1)br lt103 , Df(1)pn7b and Df(1)br R1 damage ecs but do not prevent puffing it is proposed that there is a second regulatory zone for this locus with a minimal size of 15–20 kb (between the breakpoints of Df(1)br R1 and In(1)br lt103). After cytogenetic and electron microscopic analysis of 2B puff formation it seems very likely that the site of puff formation is situated in the proximal part of 2B3-4 and after enhancement of ecs expression by hormone it spreads proximally to the 2B6 band which does not puff. When the puff regresses at puff stages (PS)10-11 its material does not condense completely and a zone of residual puffing joins the condensed material located distal to it. This material can give the impression of a separate band, designated 2B5 in Bridges' map. For convenience we propose to call the site giving rise to the puff as 2B3-5.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new genetic model system for studying position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster was found. It allows the analysis of genetic inactivation and changes in chromosome morphology in the same cells. In T(1;2)dor var7 strains the 2B5 early ecdysone puff, and the ecs locus which maps in this puff are translocated into the vicinity of centromeric heterochromatin. The ecs locus plays a key role in the system of ecdysone puffs: genetic damage to this locus results in loss of sensitivity of cells to the hormone and, as a consequence, ecdysone-induced puffs do not develop. In the T(1;2)dor var7 chromosome the ecs and at least five adjoining loci are inactivated in a variegated fashion. In the salivary gland cells of T(1;2)dor var7/ ecslt435 0 h prepupae which do not show the ecdysone puffs, the morphology of the 2B region was analysed. In all cases where the ecs locus was inactivated, a dense block of chromatin reminiscent of a solid band was found in the 2B region instead of the four bands 2B1–2, 3–4, 5 and 6. Sometimes compaction of the chromatin reached the 2A1–2 or even 1E1–4 bands. Formation of the compact block of chromatin coincided with late replication in this region. In situ hybridization of polytene chromosomes with a DNA clone from the ecs locus showed that when the dense chromatin block was present, no DNA was accessible for hybridization in 2B5. Hybridization of DNA of another clone located in the region of the translocation breakpoint (2B7–8) was found only in polytene chromosomes of larvae grown at 25° C, and never in those grown at 18° C, independently of the morphology of the 2B5 puff. The possibility that in the case of block formation both late replication and, as a consequence, underreplication of chromosome DNA take place, is discussed.
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