Autonomous migration is a central characteristic of immune cells, and changes in this function have been correlated to the progression and severity of diseases. Hence, the identification of pathologically altered leukocyte migration patterns might be a promising approach for disease surveillance and prognostic scoring. However, because of the lack of standardized and robust assays, migration patterns have not been clinically exploited so far. In this study, we introduce an easy-to-use and cross-laboratory, standardized two-dimensional migration assay for neutrophil granulocytes from peripheral blood. By combining time-lapse video microscopy and automated cell tracking, we calculated the average migration of neutrophils from 111 individual participants of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall MultiGeneration study under steady-state, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine–, CXCL1-, and CXCL8-stimulated conditions. Comparable values were obtained in an independent laboratory from a cohort in Belgium, demonstrating the robustness and transferability of the assay. In a double-blinded retrospective clinical analysis, we found that neutrophil migration strongly correlated with the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System scoring and risk category of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. In fact, patients suffering from high-risk subtypes MDS with excess blasts I or II displayed highly significantly reduced neutrophil migration. Hence, the determination of neutrophil migration patterns might represent a useful tool in the surveillance of MDS. Taken together, we suggest that standardized migration assays of neutrophils and other leukocyte subtypes might be broadly applicable as prognostic and surveillance tools for MDS and potentially for other diseases.