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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global health concern. ZIKV can persist in human semen and be transmitted by sexual contact, as well as by mosquitoes, as seen for classical arboviruses. We along with others have previously demonstrated that ZIKV infection leads to testis damage and infertility in mouse models. So far, no prophylactics or therapeutics are available; therefore, vaccine development is urgently demanded. Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus has been explored as the preferred vaccine vector for many pathogens due to the low preexisting immunity against the vector among the human population. Here, we developed a ZIKV vaccine based on recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 (AdC7) expressing ZIKV M/E glycoproteins. A single vaccination of AdC7-M/E was sufficient to elicit potent neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against ZIKV in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. Moreover, vaccinated mice rapidly developed neutralizing antibody with high titers within 1 week postvaccination, and the elicited antiserum could cross-neutralize heterologous ZIKV strains. Additionally, ZIKV M- and E-specific T cell responses were robustly induced by AdC7-M/E. Moreover, one-dose inoculation of AdC7-M/E conferred mouse sterilizing immunity to eliminate viremia and viral burden in tissues against ZIKV challenge. Further investigations showed that vaccination with AdC7-M/E completely protected against ZIKV-induced testicular damage. These data demonstrate that AdC7-M/E is highly effective and represents a promising vaccine candidate for ZIKV control. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a pathogenic flavivirus that causes severe clinical consequences, including congenital malformations in fetuses and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Vaccine development is a high priority for ZIKV control. In this study, to avoid preexisting anti-vector immunity in humans, a rare serotype chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) expressing the ZIKV M/E glycoproteins was used for ZIKV vaccine development. Impressively, AdC7-M/E exhibited exceptional performance as a ZIKV vaccine, as follows: (i) protective efficacy by a single vaccination, (ii) rapid development of a robust humoral response, (iii) durable immune responses, (iv) robust T cell responses, and (v) sterilizing immunity achieved by a single vaccination. These advantages of AdC7-M/E strongly support its potential application as a promising ZIKV vaccine in the clinic.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-06-13
    Description: Although diamond is the hardest material for cutting tools, poor thermal stability has limited its applications, especially at high temperatures. Simultaneous improvement of the hardness and thermal stability of diamond has long been desirable. According to the Hall-Petch effect, the hardness of diamond can be enhanced by nanostructuring (by means of nanograined and nanotwinned microstructures), as shown in previous studies. However, for well-sintered nanograined diamonds, the grain sizes are technically limited to 10-30 nm (ref. 3), with degraded thermal stability compared with that of natural diamond. Recent success in synthesizing nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) with a twin thickness down to approximately 3.8 nm makes it feasible to simultaneously achieve smaller nanosize, ultrahardness and superior thermal stability. At present, nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) has not been fabricated successfully through direct conversions of various carbon precursors (such as graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C60). Here we report the direct synthesis of nt-diamond with an average twin thickness of approximately 5 nm, using a precursor of onion carbon nanoparticles at high pressure and high temperature, and the observation of a new monoclinic crystalline form of diamond coexisting with nt-diamond. The pure synthetic bulk nt-diamond material shows unprecedented hardness and thermal stability, with Vickers hardness up to approximately 200 GPa and an in-air oxidization temperature more than 200 degrees C higher than that of natural diamond. The creation of nanotwinned microstructures offers a general pathway for manufacturing new advanced carbon-based materials with exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Quan -- Yu, Dongli -- Xu, Bo -- Hu, Wentao -- Ma, Yanming -- Wang, Yanbin -- Zhao, Zhisheng -- Wen, Bin -- He, Julong -- Liu, Zhongyuan -- Tian, Yongjun -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):250-3. doi: 10.1038/nature13381.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China [2]. ; State Key Laboratory for Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China. ; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60439, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919919" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tang, Zhenwu -- Huang, Qifei -- Yang, Yufei -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):455. doi: 10.1038/525455d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China. ; Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399819" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Explosions/legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control ; *Government Regulation ; *Hazardous Substances/chemistry ; Humans ; Safety/*legislation & jurisprudence
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Purpose: Inflammatory infiltration plays important roles in both carcinogenesis and metastasis. We are interested in understanding the inhibitory mechanism of metformin on tumor-associated inflammation in prostate cancer. Experimental Design: By using a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model, in vitro macrophage migration assays, and patient samples, we examined the effect of metformin on tumor-associated inflammation during the initiation and after androgen deprivation therapy of prostate cancer. Results: Treating TRAMP mice with metformin delays prostate cancer progression from low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to high-grade PIN, undifferentiated to well-differentiated, and PIN to adenocarcinoma with concurrent inhibition of inflammatory infiltration evidenced by reduced recruitment of macrophages. Furthermore, metformin is capable of inhibiting the following processes: inflammatory infiltration after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induced by surgically castration in mice, bicalutamide treatment in patients, and hormone deprivation in LNCaP cells. Mechanistically, metformin represses inflammatory infiltration by downregulating both COX2 and PGE2 in tumor cells. Conclusions: Metformin is capable of repressing prostate cancer progression by inhibiting infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages, especially those induced by ADT, by inhibiting the COX2/PGE2 axis, suggesting that a combination of ADT with metformin could be a more efficient therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5622–34. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-03
    Print ISSN: 1535-7163
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-8514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Floyd, Scott R -- Pacold, Michael E -- Huang, Qiuying -- Clarke, Scott M -- Lam, Fred C -- Cannell, Ian G -- Bryson, Bryan D -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Lee, Michael J -- Blake, Emily J -- Fydrych, Anna -- Ho, Richard -- Greenberger, Benjamin A -- Chen, Grace C -- Maffa, Amanda -- Del Rosario, Amanda M -- Root, David E -- Carpenter, Anne E -- Hahn, William C -- Sabatini, David M -- Chen, Clark C -- White, Forest M -- Bradner, James E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- 1-U54-CA112967-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES-002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01-ES15339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA109661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21-NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12147. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/radiation effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/radiation effects ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/radiation effects ; *DNA Damage ; DNA Repair/radiation effects ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/radiation effects ; Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B/metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/metabolism ; Radiation, Ionizing ; *Signal Transduction/radiation effects ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tang, Zhenwu -- Huang, Qifei -- Nie, Zhiqiang -- Yang, Yufei -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1176-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China. huangqf@craes.org.cn. ; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Birds
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: China's Chang'E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the lunar nearside (340.49 degrees E, 44.12 degrees N), a region not directly sampled before. We report preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu rover's camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim, the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xiao, Long -- Zhu, Peimin -- Fang, Guangyou -- Xiao, Zhiyong -- Zou, Yongliao -- Zhao, Jiannan -- Zhao, Na -- Yuan, Yuefeng -- Qiao, Le -- Zhang, Xiaoping -- Zhang, Hao -- Wang, Jiang -- Huang, Jun -- Huang, Qian -- He, Qi -- Zhou, Bin -- Ji, Yicai -- Zhang, Qunying -- Shen, Shaoxiang -- Li, Yuxi -- Gao, Yunze -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):1226-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1259866.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. longxiao@cug.edu.cn zhupm@cug.edu.cn gyfang@mail.ie.ac.cn. ; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. longxiao@cug.edu.cn zhupm@cug.edu.cn gyfang@mail.ie.ac.cn. ; Institute of Electronics, China Academy of Science, Beijing 100190, China. longxiao@cug.edu.cn zhupm@cug.edu.cn gyfang@mail.ie.ac.cn. ; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. The Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Sem Saelandsvei 24, 0371 Oslo, Norway. ; National Astronomical Observatories, China Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 China. ; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. ; Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. ; Institute of Electronics, China Academy of Science, Beijing 100190, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766228" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Description: Sex-specific chromosomes, like the W of most female birds and the Y of male mammals, usually have lost most genes owing to a lack of recombination. We analyze newly available genomes of 17 bird species representing the avian phylogenetic range, and find that more than half of them do not have as fully degenerated W chromosomes as that of chicken. We show that avian sex chromosomes harbor tremendous diversity among species in their composition of pseudoautosomal regions and degree of Z/W differentiation. Punctuated events of shared or lineage-specific recombination suppression have produced a gradient of "evolutionary strata" along the Z chromosome, which initiates from the putative avian sex-determining gene DMRT1 and ends at the pseudoautosomal region. W-linked genes are subject to ongoing functional decay after recombination was suppressed, and the tempo of degeneration slows down in older strata. Overall, we unveil a complex history of avian sex chromosome evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Qi -- Zhang, Jilin -- Bachtrog, Doris -- An, Na -- Huang, Quanfei -- Jarvis, Erich D -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Zhang, Guojie -- GM076007/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM093182/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM076007/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM093182/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1246338. doi: 10.1126/science.1246338. Epub 2014 Dec 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA94720, USA. zhouqi@berkeley.edu zhanggj@genomics.org.cn. ; China National Genebank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083. China. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA94720, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. Trace and Environmental DNA laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia. ; China National Genebank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083. China. Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, Universitetsparken 15, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. zhouqi@berkeley.edu zhanggj@genomics.org.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504727" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avian Proteins/genetics ; *Biological Evolution ; Birds/classification/*genetics ; Chickens/genetics ; Chromosome Inversion ; Chromosome Mapping ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Recombination, Genetic ; Sex Chromosomes/*genetics ; Species Specificity ; Struthioniformes/genetics ; Synteny ; Transcription Factors/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Introduction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is defined as the clinical diagnosis of heart failure (HF) and ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%, which is a severe public healthcare issue and brings a heavy social and economic burden for patients with HFrEF. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a long history in treating HF. Questions concerning the efficacy and acceptability of CHM-related interventions in adult patients with HFrEF led us to use the method of systematic review and network meta-analysis to integrate direct and indirect evidence to create hierarchies for all CHM. Methods and analysis Nine medical databases, including PubMed, EMBASE (OVID), the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Database and CBM will be searched from the date of database inception to June 2015 (updated to March 2017) without language and publication status restriction. Completely randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM or CHM plus routine treatment with CHM, CHM plus routine treatment, routine treatment, no treatment or placebo for adults with HFrEF will be examined. Our primary outcomes will include all-cause mortality, HF-related death, all-cause rehospitalisation, HF-related rehospitalisation and acceptability (discontinuation due to any adverse events during treatment). Secondary outcomes will include response rate, mean value or mean difference from baseline of surrogate indexes. We will perform the Bayesian network meta-analyses (NMA) for the most frequently reported primary or secondary outcome and the acceptability outcome, if available. Meta-regression, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses will be conducted based on prespecified effect modifiers to assess the robustness of the findings. Dissemination The results of this NMA will provide useful information about the effectiveness and acceptability of CHM in adults with HFrEF, which will also have implications for clinical practice and further research. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016053854.
    Keywords: Open access, Complementary medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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