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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 342 (1989), S. 739-740 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN the nine years since its invention, the scanning atomic probe microscope has been adapted in numerous ways so that it can be used to trace not merely surface topography but also surface properties with remarkable resolution. The adapta-tion, described by Weaver et aL on page 783 of this issue1, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 73 (2002), S. 2928-2936 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Increasing the imaging speed of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has important practical and scientific applications. The scan speed of tapping-mode AFMs is limited by the speed of the feedback loop that maintains a constant tapping amplitude. This article seeks to illuminate these limits to scanning speed. The limits to the feedback loop are: (1) slow transient response of probe; (2) instability limitations of high-quality factor (Q) systems; (3) feedback actuator bandwidth; (4) error signal saturation; and the (5) rms-to-dc converter. The article will also suggest solutions to mitigate these limitations. These limitations can be addressed through integrating a faster feedback actuator as well as active control of the dynamics of the cantilever. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 62 (1991), S. 1393-1399 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Nonlinearities inherent in the piezoelectric actuators used in high-resolution scanning probe microscopies limit the usefulness of the instruments for precision dimensional measurements of submicrometer to micrometer scale structures. These nonlinearities can result in images where the scale changes by over 40% from one region of the image to another. This paper describes a simple two-axis optical beam displacement sensor that is used to accurately measure the (x,y) position of a piezoelectric tube scanner used in an atomic force microscope. This sensor has a noise level of 6.1 A(ring)rms over a frequency range of 0.5 Hz–1 kHz and a stability of about 200 A(ring) over a 30-min period. Two different methods were used to correct the scans: postimaging software image correction and real-time feedback scan correction. The software method allows fast imaging and does not alter the control of the microscope, but requires postimaging image processing. It also loses some image information because of interpolation errors and the necessity of cropping the image to recover a rectangular image area. Feedback correction uses the sensor and a control system to accurately position the scanner for each data point of the image. This method eliminates the postprocessing of the images as well as interpolation errors, but limits the achievable scan speed and also adds the noise of the sensor and control system to the scan itself. Finally, both scan-correction systems reduce imaging errors dramatically over conventional open-loop piezoelectric scanners. Both linear and quadratic scan distortion are reduced to about 1%–2% of the image size.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 60 (1989), S. 3109-3112 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a multipurpose scanning tunneling microscope designed to operate in ultrahigh vacuum as well as in air, over a range extending from room temperature to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. It is a single-tube scanner design with a differential flexing approach mechanism mounted on a vibration isolation stack. The instrument features a novel in situ tip and sample exchange mechanism for extended operation under vacuum. A unique characteristic is that the vacuum chamber and all components with the exception of the gas-cooled sample holder are at room temperature. We present preliminary data taken with this instrument, demonstrating atomic resolution constant current, constant height, and multiple-bias imaging, gap-modulated current-voltage spectroscopy or simultaneous topography, and work function measurements, as well as lithography on the surfaces of graphite, Au(111) on mica, and GaAs(110).
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 58 (1987), S. 2004-2009 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The theories of the feedback and vibration isolation systems have been developed to illuminate the essential points in the design and operation of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). By analyzing a delay differential equation, we can understand the behavior of feedback and estimate the necessary gain and time constant for the best performance of the STM. Design considerations for a vibration isolation system consisting of spring suspension and magnetic damping are discussed with theoretical optimization.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 352 (1991), S. 571-571 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE most dramatic evidence of the tunnelling microscope's ability to manipulate individual atoms - the construction of an atomic switch - is presented by Eigler, Lutz and Rudge on page 600 of this issue1. This follows the previous work on translating atoms over a nickel surface using a ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 335 (1988), S. 15-16 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SCANNING tunnelling microscopes, recently developed high-resolution devices that trace the form of surfaces using an atomic-scale tip, typically reveal atomic and molecular details, often with surprising clarity. But because the technique is sensitive to variations in the density of charge at the ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 78 (2001), S. 3589-3591 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We demonstrate subwavelength spatial resolution with a scanning microlens operating in collection mode with a large-area detector. Optical contrast is created by refraction of off-axis light rays at angles larger than the maximum collection angle. With a microfabricated silicon microlens 10 μm in diameter, we measure spatial resolution due to refraction contrast of λ/4.3 at a wavelength of λ=10.7 μm. A model based on ray tracing is developed to explain our result, and we show that lens diameter and index of refraction limit resolution for large emission and collection angles. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have fabricated and operated two cantilevers in parallel in a new mode for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). The cantilevers contain both an integrated piezoresistive silicon sensor and an integrated piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) actuator. The integration of sensor and actuator on a single cantilever allows us to simultaneously record two independent AFM images in the constant force mode. The ZnO actuator provides over 4 μm of deflection at low frequencies (dc) and over 30 μm deflection at the first resonant frequency. The piezoresistive element is used to detect the strain and provide the feedback signal for the ZnO actuator. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 2415-2417 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have identified a resist material that is suitable for high-speed, nanometer-scale scanning probe lithography (SPL) using the atomic force microscope (AFM). The material is siloxene, commonly known as spin on glass (SOG). The SOG film is deposited on a silicon sample and exposed with a voltage applied between the AFM tip (negative) and the silicon substrate (positive). Voltages of 70 V and currents of 1 nA are typical. It is a positive resist where the etch selectivity between the exposed and unexposed areas is greater than 20. We have recorded line widths as narrow as 40 nm. The writing speed is greater than 1 mm/s, which we believe to be an important attribute in future systems for SPL. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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