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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Hydrogels ; polyvinyl alcohol ; structures ; SEM ; freeze-etching ; critical point drying
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Froeze-etching (FE) and critical point drying (CPD) techniques were employed to prepare samples for investigating surface and bulk structures of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels by scanning electron microscopy. The hydrogels were obtained by freezing homogeneous solutions containing PVA polymer in either water or an aqueous solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An oriented porous structure was observed in the PVA hydrogel prepared without DMSO. The structure on the surface was found to be more porous than in the bulk for PVA hydrogels prepared from aqueous DMSO solutions. For given compositions of the hydrogels, samples prepared by FE technique showed a highly porous fibrillar structure on the surface, while those prepared by CPD technique showed a collapsed fibrillar structure with much less porosity. This marked difference indicates a collapse of the surface structure caused by the CPD technique. The CPD technique also led to significant reduction in porosity and loss of fibrillar structure in the bulk. Volume shrinkage of hydrogels caused by dehydration in ethanol may be responsible for the surface collapse as well as alteration of bulk structure. The FE technique reveals a more native structure of hydrogels than the commonly used CPD technique. However, it suffers from disadvantages such as charging and structural damage at high magnifications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Filled composite ; colloidal polymerization ; kaolin ; Nylon-6 ; in-situ composite ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A mineral-filled in situ composite was prepared by a colloidal approach by first suspending kaolin filler particles in aqueous caprolactam, and then polymerizing caprolactam in situ at high pressure and temperature. The purpose of this colloidal in situ polymerization is to improve particle dispersion and to enhance interaction of the filler to the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction studies of the in situ kaolin/Nylon-6 composites revealed that the x-ray peak corresponding to the α-crystal form of Nylon-6 diminished with increasing kaolin loading, while the γ-crystal structure became more pronounced. The degree of crystallinity of Nylon-6 remained fairly unchanged with the kaolin loading level in the in situ composites. Calorimetric and dynamic mechanical studies exhibited that the glass transition temperature of the resulting composite increased significantly with increase in kaolin concentration, suggesting strong filler-matrix interaction at the kaolin/Nylon-6 interface. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results showed uniform filler dispersion in the in situ composites relative to the conventional melt-mixed composites. Modulus and tensile strength of these in situ composites were found to be distinctively higher than that of the conventional melt-mixed kaolin/Nylon-6 composites. However, as typical for composite materials, drawability and fracture toughness decreased with increasing kaolin loading. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: in situ composite ; colloidal approach ; masterbatch ; kaolin ; nylon blends ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A novel in situ composite comprised of kaolin clay fillers and polyamide 6 (Nylon-6) was synthesized via a colloidal approach by suspending kaolin particles in aqueous caprolactam and then polymerizing the caprolactam under elevated temperature and pressure. This in situ polymerization technique enables the deposition of nylon molecules directly onto the filler surface. It offers a much larger contact surface area for the nylon molecules to interact with the filler particles and enhances filler/matrix interaction through polymer miscibility. The kaolin particles were shown to be uniformly dispersed in Nylon-6 matrix without appreciable agglomeration. In the highly clay-loaded composites such as the 50/50 kaolin/Nylon-6 in situ composite, the deposited nylon molecules probably form a coated layer on the filler particles. This kind of nylon coated fillers may be applied as a reinforcing entity to commercial Nylon-6 or -;66 by improving particle dispersion and melt processability. The 50/50 kaolin/Nylon-6 in situ composites have been used as a masterbatch for blending with commercial Nylon-6 and Nylon-66 to take advantage of their good properties and to reduce cost. Rheology and mechanical properties of the masterbatch/nylon composites have been investigated in comparison with those of the conventional melt-mixed composites. The improvement of rheological and mechanical properties of the in situ composites has been discussed in relation to the composite structure. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0038-1101
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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