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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-07-23
    Description: Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios of D/H and (18)O/(16)O in water and (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O, (17)O/(16)O, and (13)C(18)O/(12)C(16)O in carbon dioxide, made in the martian atmosphere at Gale Crater from the Curiosity rover using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)'s tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). Comparison between our measurements in the modern atmosphere and those of martian meteorites such as ALH 84001 implies that the martian reservoirs of CO2 and H2O were largely established ~4 billion years ago, but that atmospheric loss or surface interaction may be still ongoing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Webster, Chris R -- Mahaffy, Paul R -- Flesch, Gregory J -- Niles, Paul B -- Jones, John H -- Leshin, Laurie A -- Atreya, Sushil K -- Stern, Jennifer C -- Christensen, Lance E -- Owen, Tobias -- Franz, Heather -- Pepin, Robert O -- Steele, Andrew -- MSL Science Team -- Achilles, Cherie -- Agard, Christophe -- Alves Verdasca, Jose Alexandre -- Anderson, Robert -- Anderson, Ryan -- Archer, Doug -- Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos -- Arvidson, Ray -- Atlaskin, Evgeny -- Aubrey, Andrew -- Baker, Burt -- Baker, Michael -- Balic-Zunic, Tonci -- Baratoux, David -- Baroukh, Julien -- Barraclough, Bruce -- Bean, Keri -- Beegle, Luther -- Behar, Alberto -- Bell, James -- Bender, Steve -- Benna, Mehdi -- Bentz, Jennifer -- Berger, Gilles -- Berger, Jeff -- Berman, Daniel -- Bish, David -- Blake, David F -- Blanco Avalos, Juan J -- Blaney, Diana -- Blank, Jen -- Blau, Hannah -- Bleacher, Lora -- Boehm, Eckart -- Botta, Oliver -- Bottcher, Stephan -- Boucher, Thomas -- Bower, Hannah -- Boyd, Nick -- Boynton, Bill -- Breves, Elly -- Bridges, John -- Bridges, Nathan -- Brinckerhoff, William -- Brinza, David -- Bristow, Thomas -- Brunet, Claude -- Brunner, Anna -- Brunner, Will -- Buch, Arnaud -- Bullock, Mark -- Burmeister, Sonke -- Cabane, Michel -- Calef, Fred -- Cameron, James -- Campbell, John -- Cantor, Bruce -- Caplinger, Michael -- Caride Rodriguez, Javier -- Carmosino, Marco -- Carrasco Blazquez, Isaias -- Charpentier, Antoine -- Chipera, Steve -- Choi, David -- Clark, Benton -- Clegg, Sam -- Cleghorn, Timothy -- Cloutis, Ed -- Cody, George -- Coll, Patrice -- Conrad, Pamela -- Coscia, David -- Cousin, Agnes -- Cremers, David -- Crisp, Joy -- Cros, Alain -- Cucinotta, Frank -- d'Uston, Claude -- Davis, Scott -- Day, Mackenzie -- de la Torre Juarez, Manuel -- DeFlores, Lauren -- DeLapp, Dorothea -- DeMarines, Julia -- DesMarais, David -- Dietrich, William -- Dingler, Robert -- Donny, Christophe -- Downs, Bob -- Drake, Darrell -- Dromart, Gilles -- Dupont, Audrey -- Duston, Brian -- Dworkin, Jason -- Dyar, M Darby -- Edgar, Lauren -- Edgett, Kenneth -- Edwards, Christopher -- Edwards, Laurence -- Ehlmann, Bethany -- Ehresmann, Bent -- Eigenbrode, Jen -- Elliott, Beverley -- Elliott, Harvey -- Ewing, Ryan -- Fabre, Cecile -- Fairen, Alberto -- Farley, Ken -- Farmer, Jack -- Fassett, Caleb -- Favot, Laurent -- Fay, Donald -- Fedosov, Fedor -- Feldman, Jason -- Feldman, Sabrina -- Fisk, Marty -- Fitzgibbon, Mike -- Floyd, Melissa -- Fluckiger, Lorenzo -- Forni, Olivier -- Fraeman, Abby -- Francis, Raymond -- Francois, Pascaline -- Freissinet, Caroline -- French, Katherine Louise -- Frydenvang, Jens -- Gaboriaud, Alain -- Gailhanou, Marc -- Garvin, James -- Gasnault, Olivier -- Geffroy, Claude -- Gellert, Ralf -- Genzer, Maria -- Glavin, Daniel -- Godber, Austin -- Goesmann, Fred -- Goetz, Walter -- Golovin, Dmitry -- Gomez Gomez, Felipe -- Gomez-Elvira, Javier -- Gondet, Brigitte -- Gordon, Suzanne -- Gorevan, Stephen -- Grant, John -- Griffes, Jennifer -- Grinspoon, David -- Grotzinger, John -- Guillemot, Philippe -- Guo, Jingnan -- Gupta, Sanjeev -- Guzewich, Scott -- Haberle, Robert -- Halleaux, Douglas -- Hallet, Bernard -- Hamilton, Vicky -- Hardgrove, Craig -- Harker, David -- Harpold, Daniel -- Harri, Ari-Matti -- Harshman, Karl -- Hassler, Donald -- Haukka, Harri -- Hayes, Alex -- Herkenhoff, Ken -- Herrera, Paul -- Hettrich, Sebastian -- Heydari, Ezat -- Hipkin, Victoria -- Hoehler, Tori -- Hollingsworth, Jeff -- Hudgins, Judy -- Huntress, Wesley -- Hurowitz, Joel -- Hviid, Stubbe -- Iagnemma, Karl -- Indyk, Steve -- Israel, Guy -- Jackson, Ryan -- Jacob, Samantha -- Jakosky, Bruce -- Jensen, Elsa -- Jensen, Jaqueline Klovgaard -- Johnson, Jeffrey -- Johnson, Micah -- Johnstone, Steve -- Jones, Andrea -- Joseph, Jonathan -- Jun, Insoo -- Kah, Linda -- Kahanpaa, Henrik -- Kahre, Melinda -- Karpushkina, Natalya -- Kasprzak, Wayne -- Kauhanen, Janne -- Keely, Leslie -- Kemppinen, Osku -- Keymeulen, Didier -- Kim, Myung-Hee -- Kinch, Kjartan -- King, Penny -- Kirkland, Laurel -- Kocurek, Gary -- Koefoed, Asmus -- Kohler, Jan -- Kortmann, Onno -- Kozyrev, Alexander -- Krezoski, Jill -- Krysak, Daniel -- Kuzmin, Ruslan -- Lacour, Jean Luc -- Lafaille, Vivian -- Langevin, Yves -- Lanza, Nina -- Lasue, Jeremie -- Le Mouelic, Stephane -- Lee, Ella Mae -- Lee, Qiu-Mei -- Lees, David -- Lefavor, Matthew -- Lemmon, Mark -- Lepinette Malvitte, Alain -- Leveille, Richard -- Lewin-Carpintier, Eric -- Lewis, Kevin -- Li, Shuai -- Lipkaman, Leslie -- Little, Cynthia -- Litvak, Maxim -- Lorigny, Eric -- Lugmair, Guenter -- Lundberg, Angela -- Lyness, Eric -- Madsen, Morten -- Maki, Justin -- Malakhov, Alexey -- Malespin, Charles -- Malin, Michael -- Mangold, Nicolas -- Manhes, Gerard -- Manning, Heidi -- Marchand, Genevieve -- Marin Jimenez, Mercedes -- Martin Garcia, Cesar -- Martin, Dave -- Martin, Mildred -- Martinez-Frias, Jesus -- Martin-Soler, Javier -- Martin-Torres, F Javier -- Mauchien, Patrick -- Maurice, Sylvestre -- McAdam, Amy -- McCartney, Elaina -- McConnochie, Timothy -- McCullough, Emily -- McEwan, Ian -- McKay, Christopher -- McLennan, Scott -- McNair, Sean -- Melikechi, Noureddine -- Meslin, Pierre-Yves -- Meyer, Michael -- Mezzacappa, Alissa -- Miller, Hayden -- Miller, Kristen -- Milliken, Ralph -- Ming, Douglas -- Minitti, Michelle -- Mischna, Michael -- Mitrofanov, Igor -- Moersch, Jeff -- Mokrousov, Maxim -- Molina Jurado, Antonio -- Moores, John -- Mora-Sotomayor, Luis -- Morookian, John Michael -- Morris, Richard -- Morrison, Shaunna -- Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold -- Muller, Jan-Peter -- Munoz Caro, Guillermo -- Nachon, Marion -- Navarro Lopez, Sara -- Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael -- Nealson, Kenneth -- Nefian, Ara -- Nelson, Tony -- Newcombe, Megan -- Newman, Claire -- Newsom, Horton -- Nikiforov, Sergey -- Nixon, Brian -- Noe Dobrea, Eldar -- Nolan, Thomas -- Oehler, Dorothy -- Ollila, Ann -- Olson, Timothy -- de Pablo Hernandez, Miguel Angel -- Paillet, Alexis -- Pallier, Etienne -- Palucis, Marisa -- Parker, Timothy -- Parot, Yann -- Patel, Kiran -- Paton, Mark -- Paulsen, Gale -- Pavlov, Alex -- Pavri, Betina -- Peinado-Gonzalez, Veronica -- Peret, Laurent -- Perez, Rene -- Perrett, Glynis -- Peterson, Joe -- Pilorget, Cedric -- Pinet, Patrick -- Pla-Garcia, Jorge -- Plante, Ianik -- Poitrasson, Franck -- Polkko, Jouni -- Popa, Radu -- Posiolova, Liliya -- Posner, Arik -- Pradler, Irina -- Prats, Benito -- Prokhorov, Vasily -- Purdy, Sharon Wilson -- Raaen, Eric -- Radziemski, Leon -- Rafkin, Scot -- Ramos, Miguel -- Rampe, Elizabeth -- Raulin, Francois -- Ravine, Michael -- Reitz, Gunther -- Renno, Nilton -- Rice, Melissa -- Richardson, Mark -- Robert, Francois -- Robertson, Kevin -- Rodriguez Manfredi, Jose Antonio -- Romeral-Planello, Julio J -- Rowland, Scott -- Rubin, David -- Saccoccio, Muriel -- Salamon, Andrew -- Sandoval, Jennifer -- Sanin, Anton -- Sans Fuentes, Sara Alejandra -- Saper, Lee -- Sarrazin, Philippe -- Sautter, Violaine -- Savijarvi, Hannu -- Schieber, Juergen -- Schmidt, Mariek -- Schmidt, Walter -- Scholes, Daniel -- Schoppers, Marcel -- Schroder, Susanne -- Schwenzer, Susanne -- Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo -- Sengstacken, Aaron -- Shterts, Ruslan -- Siebach, Kirsten -- Siili, Tero -- Simmonds, Jeff -- Sirven, Jean-Baptiste -- Slavney, Susie -- Sletten, Ronald -- Smith, Michael -- Sobron Sanchez, Pablo -- Spanovich, Nicole -- Spray, John -- Squyres, Steven -- Stack, Katie -- Stalport, Fabien -- Stein, Thomas -- Stewart, Noel -- Stipp, Susan Louise Svane -- Stoiber, Kevin -- Stolper, Ed -- Sucharski, Bob -- Sullivan, Rob -- Summons, Roger -- Sumner, Dawn -- Sun, Vivian -- Supulver, Kimberley -- Sutter, Brad -- Szopa, Cyril -- Tan, Florence -- Tate, Christopher -- Teinturier, Samuel -- ten Kate, Inge -- Thomas, Peter -- Thompson, Lucy -- Tokar, Robert -- Toplis, Mike -- Torres Redondo, Josefina -- Trainer, Melissa -- Treiman, Allan -- Tretyakov, Vladislav -- Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser -- Van Beek, Jason -- Van Beek, Tessa -- VanBommel, Scott -- Vaniman, David -- Varenikov, Alexey -- Vasavada, Ashwin -- Vasconcelos, Paulo -- Vicenzi, Edward -- Vostrukhin, Andrey -- Voytek, Mary -- Wadhwa, Meenakshi -- Ward, Jennifer -- Weigle, Eddie -- Wellington, Danika -- Westall, Frances -- Wiens, Roger Craig -- Wilhelm, Mary Beth -- Williams, Amy -- Williams, Joshua -- Williams, Rebecca -- Williams, Richard B -- Wilson, Mike -- Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert -- Wolff, Mike -- Wong, Mike -- Wray, James -- Wu, Megan -- Yana, Charles -- Yen, Albert -- Yingst, Aileen -- Zeitlin, Cary -- Zimdar, Robert -- Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 19;341(6143):260-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1237961.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. chris.r.webster@jpl.nasa.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869013" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: "Jake_M," the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (〉15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type typically found at ocean islands and continental rifts. By analogy with these comparable terrestrial rocks, Jake_M could have been produced by extensive fractional crystallization of a primary alkaline or transitional magma at elevated pressure, with or without elevated water contents. The discovery of Jake_M suggests that alkaline magmas may be more abundant on Mars than on Earth and that Curiosity could encounter even more fractionated alkaline rocks (for example, phonolites and trachytes).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stolper, E M -- Baker, M B -- Newcombe, M E -- Schmidt, M E -- Treiman, A H -- Cousin, A -- Dyar, M D -- Fisk, M R -- Gellert, R -- King, P L -- Leshin, L -- Maurice, S -- McLennan, S M -- Minitti, M E -- Perrett, G -- Rowland, S -- Sautter, V -- Wiens, R C -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1239463. doi: 10.1126/science.1239463.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ems@gps.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: The Rocknest aeolian deposit is similar to aeolian features analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity. The fraction of sand 〈150 micrometers in size contains ~55% crystalline material consistent with a basaltic heritage and ~45% x-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component of Rocknest is iron-rich and silicon-poor and is the host of the volatiles (water, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and chlorine) detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument and of the fine-grained nanophase oxide component first described from basaltic soils analyzed by MERs. The similarity between soils and aeolian materials analyzed at Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater implies locally sourced, globally similar basaltic materials or globally and regionally sourced basaltic components deposited locally at all three locations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Blake, D F -- Morris, R V -- Kocurek, G -- Morrison, S M -- Downs, R T -- Bish, D -- Ming, D W -- Edgett, K S -- Rubin, D -- Goetz, W -- Madsen, M B -- Sullivan, R -- Gellert, R -- Campbell, I -- Treiman, A H -- McLennan, S M -- Yen, A S -- Grotzinger, J -- Vaniman, D T -- Chipera, S J -- Achilles, C N -- Rampe, E B -- Sumner, D -- Meslin, P-Y -- Maurice, S -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Fisk, M -- Schmidt, M -- Mahaffy, P -- Leshin, L A -- Glavin, D -- Steele, A -- Freissinet, C -- Navarro-Gonzalez, R -- Yingst, R A -- Kah, L C -- Bridges, N -- Lewis, K W -- Bristow, T F -- Farmer, J D -- Crisp, J A -- Stolper, E M -- Des Marais, D J -- Sarrazin, P -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1239505. doi: 10.1126/science.1239505.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. david.blake@nasa.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072928" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ming, D W -- Archer, P D Jr -- Glavin, D P -- Eigenbrode, J L -- Franz, H B -- Sutter, B -- Brunner, A E -- Stern, J C -- Freissinet, C -- McAdam, A C -- Mahaffy, P R -- Cabane, M -- Coll, P -- Campbell, J L -- Atreya, S K -- Niles, P B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bish, D L -- Brinckerhoff, W B -- Buch, A -- Conrad, P G -- Des Marais, D J -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fairen, A G -- Farley, K -- Flesch, G J -- Francois, P -- Gellert, R -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- Leshin, L A -- Lewis, K W -- McLennan, S M -- Miller, K E -- Moersch, J -- Morris, R V -- Navarro-Gonzalez, R -- Pavlov, A A -- Perrett, G M -- Pradler, I -- Squyres, S W -- Summons, R E -- Steele, A -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Szopa, C -- Teinturier, S -- Trainer, M G -- Treiman, A H -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A R -- Webster, C R -- Wray, J J -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1245267. doi: 10.1126/science.1245267. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/*analysis ; *Mars ; Oxygen/analysis/chemistry ; Sulfides/analysis/chemistry ; Volatile Organic Compounds/*analysis ; Water/analysis/chemistry
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-10-10
    Description: The landforms of northern Gale crater on Mars expose thick sequences of sedimentary rocks. Based on images obtained by the Curiosity rover, we interpret these outcrops as evidence for past fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine environments. Degradation of the crater wall and rim probably supplied these sediments, which advanced inward from the wall, infilling both the crater and an internal lake basin to a thickness of at least 75 meters. This intracrater lake system probably existed intermittently for thousands to millions of years, implying a relatively wet climate that supplied moisture to the crater rim and transported sediment via streams into the lake basin. The deposits in Gale crater were then exhumed, probably by wind-driven erosion, creating Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Malin, M C -- Rubin, D M -- Schieber, J -- Siebach, K -- Sumner, D Y -- Stack, K M -- Vasavada, A R -- Arvidson, R E -- Calef, F 3rd -- Edgar, L -- Fischer, W F -- Grant, J A -- Griffes, J -- Kah, L C -- Lamb, M P -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Minitti, M E -- Palucis, M -- Rice, M -- Williams, R M E -- Yingst, R A -- Blake, D -- Blaney, D -- Conrad, P -- Crisp, J -- Dietrich, W E -- Dromart, G -- Edgett, K S -- Ewing, R C -- Gellert, R -- Hurowitz, J A -- Kocurek, G -- Mahaffy, P -- McBride, M J -- McLennan, S M -- Mischna, M -- Ming, D -- Milliken, R -- Newsom, H -- Oehler, D -- Parker, T J -- Vaniman, D -- Wiens, R C -- Wilson, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):aac7575. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7575.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geologic and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Malin Space Science Systems, Post Office Box 910148, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. ; Astrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. ; Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Laboratoire Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes-Le Centre National de la Recherche, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6112 and Universite de Nantes, 44322 Nantes, France. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; Department of Geology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA. ; Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Laboratoire de Geologie de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France. ; Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. ; Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2100, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. ; Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA. ; LZ Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450214" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Climate ; Exhumation ; *Lakes ; *Mars ; Paleontology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-01-25
    Description: Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe(+3)-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arvidson, R E -- Squyres, S W -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Catalano, J G -- Clark, B C -- Crumpler, L S -- de Souza, P A Jr -- Fairen, A G -- Farrand, W H -- Fox, V K -- Gellert, R -- Ghosh, A -- Golombek, M P -- Grotzinger, J P -- Guinness, E A -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Jolliff, B L -- Knoll, A H -- Li, R -- McLennan, S M -- Ming, D W -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Moore, J M -- Morris, R V -- Murchie, S L -- Parker, T J -- Paulsen, G -- Rice, J W -- Ruff, S W -- Smith, M D -- Wolff, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1248097. doi: 10.1126/science.1248097.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24458648" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Geologic Sediments ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; *Mars ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Spacecraft ; Sulfates/chemistry ; *Water
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLennan, S M -- Anderson, R B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bridges, J C -- Calef, F 3rd -- Campbell, J L -- Clark, B C -- Clegg, S -- Conrad, P -- Cousin, A -- Des Marais, D J -- Dromart, G -- Dyar, M D -- Edgar, L A -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fabre, C -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Gellert, R -- Gordon, S -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- King, P L -- Le Mouelic, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Maurice, S -- Ming, D W -- Morris, R V -- Nachon, M -- Newsom, H E -- Ollila, A M -- Perrett, G M -- Rice, M S -- Schmidt, M E -- Schwenzer, S P -- Stack, K -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Treiman, A H -- VanBommel, S -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A -- Wiens, R C -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1244734. doi: 10.1126/science.1244734. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324274" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Calcium Sulfate/analysis/chemistry ; Chlorine/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ferrosoferric Oxide/analysis/chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/*chemistry ; Halogens/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; Magnesium/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Water/chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-18
    Description: Reports of plumes or patches of methane in the martian atmosphere that vary over monthly time scales have defied explanation to date. From in situ measurements made over a 20-month period by the tunable laser spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Curiosity at Gale crater, we report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69 +/- 0.25 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at the 95% confidence interval (CI). This abundance is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period (where 1 sol is a martian day), we observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2 +/- 2.1 ppbv (95% CI), implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Webster, Christopher R -- Mahaffy, Paul R -- Atreya, Sushil K -- Flesch, Gregory J -- Mischna, Michael A -- Meslin, Pierre-Yves -- Farley, Kenneth A -- Conrad, Pamela G -- Christensen, Lance E -- Pavlov, Alexander A -- Martin-Torres, Javier -- Zorzano, Maria-Paz -- McConnochie, Timothy H -- Owen, Tobias -- Eigenbrode, Jennifer L -- Glavin, Daniel P -- Steele, Andrew -- Malespin, Charles A -- Archer, P Douglas Jr -- Sutter, Brad -- Coll, Patrice -- Freissinet, Caroline -- McKay, Christopher P -- Moores, John E -- Schwenzer, Susanne P -- Bridges, John C -- Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael -- Gellert, Ralf -- Lemmon, Mark T -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220):415-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1261713. Epub 2014 Dec 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. chris.r.webster@jpl.nasa.gov. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, UPS-OMP, CNRS, 31028 Toulouse, France. ; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)-Universidad de Granada], Granada, Spain. Division of Space Technology, Lulea University of Technology, Kiruna, Sweden. ; Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial-CSIC, Madrid, Spain. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. ; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, USA. ; Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Laboratoire Inter-Universitaires Des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583, Paris, France. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA 94035, USA. ; York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. ; The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK. ; Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico. ; University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. ; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25515120" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-05
    Description: The rover Opportunity has investigated the rim of Endeavour Crater, a large ancient impact crater on Mars. Basaltic breccias produced by the impact form the rim deposits, with stratigraphy similar to that observed at similar-sized craters on Earth. Highly localized zinc enrichments in some breccia materials suggest hydrothermal alteration of rim deposits. Gypsum-rich veins cut sedimentary rocks adjacent to the crater rim. The gypsum was precipitated from low-temperature aqueous fluids flowing upward from the ancient materials of the rim, leading temporarily to potentially habitable conditions and providing some of the waters involved in formation of the ubiquitous sulfate-rich sandstones of the Meridiani region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Squyres, S W -- Arvidson, R E -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Calef, F 3rd -- Clark, B C -- Cohen, B A -- Crumpler, L A -- de Souza, P A Jr -- Farrand, W H -- Gellert, R -- Grant, J -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- Johnson, J R -- Jolliff, B L -- Knoll, A H -- Li, R -- McLennan, S M -- Ming, D W -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Parker, T J -- Paulsen, G -- Rice, M S -- Ruff, S W -- Schroder, C -- Yen, A S -- Zacny, K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 4;336(6081):570-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1220476.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. squyres@astro.cornell.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22556248" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcium Sulfate ; Extraterrestrial Environment ; Geological Phenomena ; *Mars ; Meteoroids ; Silicates ; Spacecraft ; *Water ; Zinc
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both iron and sulfur species. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured directly as key biogenic elements; by inference, phosphorus is assumed to have been available. The environment probably had a minimum duration of hundreds to tens of thousands of years. These results highlight the biological viability of fluvial-lacustrine environments in the post-Noachian history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grotzinger, J P -- Sumner, D Y -- Kah, L C -- Stack, K -- Gupta, S -- Edgar, L -- Rubin, D -- Lewis, K -- Schieber, J -- Mangold, N -- Milliken, R -- Conrad, P G -- DesMarais, D -- Farmer, J -- Siebach, K -- Calef, F 3rd -- Hurowitz, J -- McLennan, S M -- Ming, D -- Vaniman, D -- Crisp, J -- Vasavada, A -- Edgett, K S -- Malin, M -- Blake, D -- Gellert, R -- Mahaffy, P -- Wiens, R C -- Maurice, S -- Grant, J A -- Wilson, S -- Anderson, R C -- Beegle, L -- Arvidson, R -- Hallet, B -- Sletten, R S -- Rice, M -- Bell, J 3rd -- Griffes, J -- Ehlmann, B -- Anderson, R B -- Bristow, T F -- Dietrich, W E -- Dromart, G -- Eigenbrode, J -- Fraeman, A -- Hardgrove, C -- Herkenhoff, K -- Jandura, L -- Kocurek, G -- Lee, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Limonadi, D -- Maki, J -- McCloskey, S -- Meyer, M -- Minitti, M -- Newsom, H -- Oehler, D -- Okon, A -- Palucis, M -- Parker, T -- Rowland, S -- Schmidt, M -- Squyres, S -- Steele, A -- Stolper, E -- Summons, R -- Treiman, A -- Williams, R -- Yingst, A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1242777. doi: 10.1126/science.1242777. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Geologic and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324272" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Carbon/analysis ; *Exobiology ; *Extraterrestrial Environment ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/classification ; Hydrogen/analysis ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Nitrogen/analysis ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen/analysis ; Phosphorus/analysis ; Salinity ; Sulfur/analysis/chemistry ; *Water
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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