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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: Local extinctions have cascading effects on ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the potential for the rapid evolutionary change of species in human-modified scenarios. We show that the functional extinction of large-gape seed dispersers in the Brazilian Atlantic forest is associated with the consistent reduction of the seed size of a keystone palm species. Among 22 palm populations, areas deprived of large avian frugivores for several decades present smaller seeds than nondefaunated forests, with negative consequences for palm regeneration. Coalescence and phenotypic selection models indicate that seed size reduction most likely occurred within the past 100 years, associated with human-driven fragmentation. The fast-paced defaunation of large vertebrates is most likely causing unprecedented changes in the evolutionary trajectories and community composition of tropical forests.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Galetti, Mauro -- Guevara, Roger -- Cortes, Marina C -- Fadini, Rodrigo -- Von Matter, Sandro -- Leite, Abraao B -- Labecca, Fabio -- Ribeiro, Thiago -- Carvalho, Carolina S -- Collevatti, Rosane G -- Pires, Mathias M -- Guimaraes, Paulo R Jr -- Brancalion, Pedro H -- Ribeiro, Milton C -- Jordano, Pedro -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1086-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1233774.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. mgaletti@rc.unesp.br〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723235" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Arecaceae ; *Biological Evolution ; *Birds ; Brazil ; *Extinction, Biological ; *Feeding Behavior ; *Germination ; Seeds/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Trees
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The karyotypes of 33 specimens of Rattus norvegicus captured in a wild population, were studied by means of conventional Giemsa staining and G- and C-banding methods. A chromosomal polymorphism for the presence or absence of extra segments in autosomes 3 and 12 and the X chromosome was found, beside a polymorphism for centromeric C-bands in pair no. 6. The frequency of different chromosome types found in this population was compared with that found in a wild population in Japan as well as with that found in some inbred strains.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Inversion frequencies in chromosomes 16 and 18 and B-chromosome frequency have been studied in three populations of Rattus rattus frugivorus. In two of these, Cuenca and San Pedro del Pinatar, the frequencies of homozygous and heterozygous individuals do not differ significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both chromosome pairs. By contrast, in the Vega de Granada population there are fewer heterozygous and more homozygous individuals than expected on the basis of the Hardy-Weinberg distribution, although the frequency distributions of karyotypes in these three populations are not significantly different. In relation to the B chromosome, the Cuenca and San Pedro populations have frequencies of B-carrying animals of 0.25 and 0.22 respectively, the Vega de Granada population of 0.80.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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