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  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASE ; UNITED-STATES ; JAPANESE POPULATION ; German ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS ; LOXL1 GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; PSEUDOEXFOLIATION SYNDROME ; GLAUCOMA
    Abstract: Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up the most significant findings in a further 6,901 cases and 20,727 controls from 17 countries across 6 continents. We discovered a genome-wide significant association between a new locus (CACNA1A rs4926244) and increased susceptibility to XFS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, P = 3.36 x 10(-11)). Although we also confirmed overwhelming association at the LOXL1 locus, the key SNP marker (LOXL1 rs4886776) demonstrated allelic reversal depending on the ancestry group (Japanese: ORA allele = 9.87, P = 2.13 x 10(-217); non-Japanese: ORA allele = 0.49, P = 2.35 x 10(-31)). Our findings represent the first genetic locus outside of LOXL1 surpassing genome-wide significance for XFS and provide insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25706626
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Floyd, Scott R -- Pacold, Michael E -- Huang, Qiuying -- Clarke, Scott M -- Lam, Fred C -- Cannell, Ian G -- Bryson, Bryan D -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Lee, Michael J -- Blake, Emily J -- Fydrych, Anna -- Ho, Richard -- Greenberger, Benjamin A -- Chen, Grace C -- Maffa, Amanda -- Del Rosario, Amanda M -- Root, David E -- Carpenter, Anne E -- Hahn, William C -- Sabatini, David M -- Chen, Clark C -- White, Forest M -- Bradner, James E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- 1-U54-CA112967-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES-002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01-ES15339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA109661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21-NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12147. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/radiation effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/radiation effects ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/radiation effects ; *DNA Damage ; DNA Repair/radiation effects ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/radiation effects ; Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B/metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/metabolism ; Radiation, Ionizing ; *Signal Transduction/radiation effects ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Decreased expression of C9orf72 is seen in expansion carriers, suggesting that loss of function may play a role in disease. We found that two independent mouse lines lacking the C9orf72 ortholog (3110043O21Rik) in all tissues developed normally and aged without motor neuron disease. Instead, C9orf72 null mice developed progressive splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy with accumulation of engorged macrophage-like cells. C9orf72 expression was highest in myeloid cells, and the loss of C9orf72 led to lysosomal accumulation and altered immune responses in macrophages and microglia, with age-related neuroinflammation similar to C9orf72 ALS but not sporadic ALS human patient tissue. Thus, C9orf72 is required for the normal function of myeloid cells, and altered microglial function may contribute to neurodegeneration in C9orf72 expansion carriers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Rourke, J G -- Bogdanik, L -- Yanez, A -- Lall, D -- Wolf, A J -- Muhammad, A K M G -- Ho, R -- Carmona, S -- Vit, J P -- Zarrow, J -- Kim, K J -- Bell, S -- Harms, M B -- Miller, T M -- Dangler, C A -- Underhill, D M -- Goodridge, H S -- Lutz, C M -- Baloh, R H -- GM085796/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS069669/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS078398/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS087351/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1324-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1064.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA. ; Division of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/immunology ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/*immunology ; Animals ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/*immunology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Lymphatic Diseases/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Microglia/*immunology ; Myeloid Cells/*immunology ; Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Rats ; Splenomegaly/genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: The Condensin II complex plays important, conserved roles in genome organization throughout the cell cycle and in the regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have linked decreased Condensin II subunit expression with a variety of diseases. Here, we show that elevated levels of Condensin II subunits are detected in somatic cancers. To evaluate potential biological effects of elevated Condensin II levels, we overexpressed the Condensin II subunit, dCAP-D3 in Drosophila melanogaster larval tissues and examined the effects on the mitotic- and interphase-specific functions of Condensin II. Interestingly, while ubiquitous overexpression resulted in pupal lethality, tissue specific overexpression of dCAP-D3 caused formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates which slowed mitotic prophase progression, mimicking results observed when dCAP-D3 levels are depleted. Surprisingly, dCAP-D3 aggregate formation resulted in faster transitions from metaphase to anaphase. Overexpressed dCAP-D3 protein failed to precipitate other Condensin II subunits in nondividing tissues, but did cause changes to gene expression which occurred in a manner opposite of what was observed when dCAP-D3 levels were depleted in both dividing and nondividing tissues. Our findings show that altering dCAP-D3 levels in either direction has detrimental effects on mitotic timing, the regulation of gene expression, and organism development. Taken together, these data suggest that the different roles for Condensin II throughout the cell cycle may be independent of each other and/or that dCAP-D3 may possess functions that are separate from those involving its association with the Condensin II complex. If conserved, these findings could have implications for tumors harboring elevated CAP-D3 levels.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( ada2 , bas1 , hir3, ino2 and met31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae. This highlighted the importance of these transcription factors in C. glabrata infectivity. Further ex vivo investigation into these mutants revealed the requirement of C. glabrata ADA2 for oxidative stress tolerance. We confirmed this observation in vivo whereby growth of the C. glabrata ada2 strain was permitted only in flies with suppressed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, overexpression of ADA2 promoted C. glabrata replication in infected wild type larvae resulting in larval killing. We propose that ADA2 orchestrates the response of C. glabrata against ROS-mediated immune defenses during infection. With the need to find alternative antifungal treatment for C. glabrata infections, genes required for survival in the host environment, such as ADA2 , provide promising potential targets.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-02
    Description: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is known to regulate lipid metabolism in many tissues, including macrophages. Here we report that peritoneal macrophage respiration is enhanced by rosiglitazone, an activating PPAR ligand, in a PPAR-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR is required for macrophage respiration even in the absence of exogenous ligand. Unexpectedly, the absence of PPAR dramatically affects the oxidation of glutamine. Both glutamine and PPAR have been implicated in alternative activation (AA) of macrophages, and PPAR was required for interleukin 4 (IL4)-dependent gene expression and stimulation of macrophage respiration. Indeed, unstimulated macrophages lacking PPAR contained elevated levels of the inflammation-associated metabolite itaconate and express a proinflammatory transcriptome that, remarkably, phenocopied that of macrophages depleted of glutamine. Thus, PPAR functions as a checkpoint, guarding against inflammation, and is permissive for AA by facilitating glutamine metabolism. However, PPAR expression is itself markedly increased by IL4. This suggests that PPAR functions at the center of a feed-forward loop that is central to AA of macrophages.
    Print ISSN: 0890-9369
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Adrenal chromaffin cells ; Endocrine pancreas ; Enkephalins ; Globus pallidus ; Hypothalamic median eminence ; Immunohistochemistry ; Neuropeptides ; Neurotensin ; Oxytocin ; Primary afferent neurons ; Somatostatin ; Substance P ; Substantia gelatinosa ; Vasopressin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0304-3991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0304-3991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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