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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for the folding and trafficking of proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Environmental insults or increased protein synthesis often lead to protein misfolding in the organelle, the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins - known as endoplasmic reticulum stress - and the activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response to restore homeostasis. If protein misfolding is not resolved, cells die. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the unfolded protein response help to determine cell fate and function. Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to the aetiology of many human diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Miao -- Kaufman, Randal J -- CA128814/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103183/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):326-35. doi: 10.1038/nature17041.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Degenerative Diseases Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26791723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Transfection of a mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cDNA contained in a plasmid “expression vector” into DHFR deficient Chinese hamster cells, followed by progressive selection of cells in increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), leads to marked amplification of the exogenous DHFR sequences in the recipient hamster cells. The gene amplification is evident at the cytological level, in the form of homogeneously staining chromosomal regions (HRSs), at a gene expression level, in the form of fluorescein-methotrexate binding, and at the DNA level. Flow sorting, based on variable fluorescein-MTX binding, or direct cellular cloning, followed by chromosome analysis, revealed intercellular heterogeneity of HSRs in size and distribution. This suggested that there was a rapid evolution of HSRs an MTX-resistant transfectants. Chromosomal analysis of HSR evolution in situ, by examining individual colonies presumably derived from one or a few cells, underscored this impression of chromosome structural fluidity. Rates of HSR change in excess of 0.01 per cell division, increased by low doses of the recombinogen, mitomycin C were detected. The Chinese hamster DHFR transfectants described should be amenable to detailed, coordinate cytological and molecular characterization. Such an analysis should contribute to an understanding of processes such as homologous recombination in mediating HSR evolution in mammalian chromosomes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 342 (1989), S. 207-208 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] HAEMOPHILIA A is a bleeding disorder that was recognized over 1,700 years ago, as documented in the Talmud. By the early 1800s, it was observed that haemophilia A is an X chromosome-linked disorder that results in a bleeding diathesis in affected males. By 1840, transfusion of whole blood was shown ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2516
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Treatment of heamophilia A requires frequent infusion of plasma- or recombinant-derived factor VIII. This regimen is limited due to the high cost and inconvenient access to peripheral veins. In addition, patients frequently develop inhibitory antibodies that limit available therapeutic regimens. Two major advances in factor VIII research over the past 15 years were the ability to isolate homogeneous preparations of factor VIII and the isolation of the factor VIII gene that provided for a detailed biochemical and structural characterization of the factor VIII molecule. With an increased understanding of the requirements for factor VIII function, studies have attempted to produce improved factor VIII molecules for replacement therapy. These findings have produced forms of factor VIII that are more efficiently produced, that are less immunogenic, and that have higher specific activity. The future will see the engineering of novel factor VIII molecules with increased therapeutic efficiency while minimizing inhibitor antibody development. In addition, there are now structural models of factor VIII available that should in the future direct development of novel peptidomimetics that may eventually overcome the requirement for replacement therapy with factor VIII protein.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2516
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Combined deficiency of coagulation factor V and factor VIII is an autosomal recessive disorder which has been observed in a number of populations around the world. However, this disease appears to be most common in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in Jews of Sephardic and Middle Eastern origin living in Israel. We have taken a positional cloning approach toward identifying the gene responsible for this disorder. We initially studied 14 affected individuals from nine unrelated Jewish families using a panel of polymorphic genetic markers spaced throughout the human genome. The combined factors V and VIII deficiency gene was mapped to a locus on the long arm of chromosome 18 with a maximal LOD score of 13.22. A detailed genetic analysis identified two distinct haplotypes among these families, suggesting two independent founders or, alternatively, a single ancient founder with a more recent split of these subpopulations. Further work to identify and characterize the gene responsible for combined factors V and VIII deficiency should provide important insights into the biosynthesis of these homologous proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A reproducible method for regeneration of plants from primary leaf tissue of 27 varieties of soybean (Glycine max), encompassing maturity groups 00 to VIII, has been developed. Progeny from seeds recovered from regenerated plants appear normal. Best regeneration was from leaf explants (2.1–4.0 mm) obtained from 5 day old seedlings. While 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was demonstrated to be essential for regeneration, addition of benzyladenine (BA) was found to enhance regeneration. Of the 6 other auxins tested, only picloram induced any regenerative response. Using identical volumes of medium and other conditions, regeneration could be obtained in 95 × 25 mm glass culture tubes but not in 60 × 15 mm Petri dishes. The regeneration of soybeans from primary leaf tissue was shown to be greatly enhanced by pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline). Stimulatory effects were attained if pyroglutamic acid was added directly to the medium or if it was formed in situ as a result of chemical transformation of glutamine during autoclaving. The “active” component produced by autoclaving glutamine was not a conjugate of glutamine with inorganic salts or another organic component of the medium. Filter-sterilized glutamine was shown to be inhibitory to regeneration. Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) basal media were compared to Gamborg B5 medium. All contained 0.1 mg/l 2,4,5-T, 40 mg/l adenine sulfate and 10 mM pyroglutamic acid. No regeneration occurred when MS medium was used. Growth and appearance of callus growing on SH and B5 media with the additives were similar. The incidence of regeneration among cultures growing on SH medium was only one third compared to cultures grown on B5 medium.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Medicine 43 (1992), S. 325-339 
    ISSN: 0066-4219
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-01-26
    Description: Iron deficiency (ID) anemia is a prevalent disease, yet molecular mechanisms by which iron and heme regulate erythropoiesis are not completely understood. Heme-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) is a key hemoprotein in erythroid precursors that sense intracellular heme concentrations to balance globin synthesis with the amount of heme available for hemoglobin production. HRI is activated by heme deficiency and oxidative stress, and it phosphorylates eIF2α (eIF2αP), which inhibits the translation of globin messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and selectively enhances the translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA to induce stress response genes. Here, we generated a novel mouse model ( eAA ) with the erythroid-specific ablation of eIF2αP and demonstrated that eIF2αP is required for induction of ATF4 protein synthesis in vivo in erythroid cells during ID. We show for the first time that both eIF2αP and ATF4 are necessary to promote erythroid differentiation and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo during ID. Furthermore, the HRI-eIF2αP-ATF4 pathway suppresses mTORC1 signaling specifically in the erythroid lineage. Pharmacologic inhibition of mTORC1 significantly increased red blood cell counts and hemoglobin content in the blood, improved erythroid differentiation, and reduced splenomegaly of iron-deficient Hri –/– and eAA mice. However, globin inclusions and elevated oxidative stress remained, demonstrating the essential nonredundant role of HRI-eIF2αP in these processes. Dietary iron repletion completely reversed ID anemia and ineffective erythropoiesis of Hri –/– , eAA , and Atf4 –/– mice by inhibiting both HRI and mTORC1 signaling. Thus, HRI coordinates 2 key translation-regulation pathways, eIF2αP and mTORC1, to circumvent ineffective erythropoiesis, highlighting heme and translation in the regulation of erythropoiesis.
    Keywords: Red Cells, Iron, and Erythropoiesis
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization. In mice fed normal chow, the endoribonuclease function of IRE1α processed a subset of precursor miRNAs in the liver, including those of the miR-200 and miR-34 families, such that IRE1α promoted their degradation through the process of regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). A high-fat diet in mice or hepatic steatosis in patients was associated with the S-nitrosylation of IRE1α and inactivation of its endoribonuclease activity. This resulted in an increased abundance of these miRNA families in the liver and, consequently, a decreased abundance of their targets, which included peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα) and the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), regulators of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride lipolysis. IRE1α deficiency exacerbated hepatic steatosis in mice. The abundance of the miR-200 and miR-34 families was also increased in cultured, lipid-overloaded hepatocytes and in the livers of patients with hepatic steatosis. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which IRE1α maintains lipid homeostasis through its regulation of miRNAs, a regulatory pathway distinct from the canonical IRE1α-UPR pathway under acute ER stress.
    Print ISSN: 1945-0877
    Topics: Medicine
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