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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded beta-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406929/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Pancera, Marie -- Carrico, Chris -- Gorman, Jason -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Khayat, Reza -- Louder, Robert -- Pejchal, Robert -- Sastry, Mallika -- Dai, Kaifan -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Patel, Nikita -- Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Zhu, Jiang -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Diwanji, Devan -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwon, Young Do -- Lee, Doyung -- Louder, Mark K -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Yang, Zhi-Yong -- Bonsignori, Mattia -- Crump, John A -- Kapiga, Saidi H -- Sam, Noel E -- Haynes, Barton F -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Walker, Laura M -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wyatt, Richard -- Orwenyo, Jared -- Wang, Lai-Xi -- Arthos, James -- Bewley, Carole A -- Mascola, John R -- Nabel, Gary J -- Schief, William R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Kwong, Peter D -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7377):336-43. doi: 10.1038/nature10696.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113616" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity/immunology ; Antibody Specificity/*immunology ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycopeptides/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*chemistry/*immunology ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: Immune recognition of protein antigens relies on the combined interaction of multiple antibody loops, which provide a fairly large footprint and constrain the size and shape of protein surfaces that can be targeted. Single protein loops can mediate extremely high-affinity binding, but it is unclear whether such a mechanism is available to antibodies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an antibody called C05, which neutralizes strains from multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1, H2 and H3. X-ray and electron microscopy structures show that C05 recognizes conserved elements of the receptor-binding site on the haemagglutinin surface glycoprotein. Recognition of the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site is dominated by a single heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 loop, with minor contacts from heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 1, and is sufficient to achieve nanomolar binding with a minimal footprint. Thus, binding predominantly with a single loop can allow antibodies to target small, conserved functional sites on otherwise hypervariable antigens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538848/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538848/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ekiert, Damian C -- Kashyap, Arun K -- Steel, John -- Rubrum, Adam -- Bhabha, Gira -- Khayat, Reza -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Dillon, Michael A -- O'Neil, Ryann E -- Faynboym, Aleksandr M -- Horowitz, Michael -- Horowitz, Lawrence -- Ward, Andrew B -- Palese, Peter -- Webby, Richard -- Lerner, Richard A -- Bhatt, Ramesh R -- Wilson, Ian A -- GM080209/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI058113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01AI058113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM080209/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI070373/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01AI070373/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54-AI057158/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 27;489(7417):526-32. doi: 10.1038/nature11414. Epub 2012 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22982990" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/*chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Antibody Specificity/genetics/*immunology ; Antigens, Viral/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites ; Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Cross Reactions/genetics/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry/immunology ; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/chemistry/immunology ; Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/chemistry/immunology ; Influenza A virus/chemistry/*classification/*immunology ; Influenza Vaccines/immunology ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/genetics ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology/prevention & control/virology ; Protein Conformation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-11
    Description: Identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza A viruses has raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy and "universal" vaccines for influenza. However, a substantial part of the annual flu burden is caused by two cocirculating, antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses. Here, we report human monoclonal antibodies, CR8033, CR8071, and CR9114, that protect mice against lethal challenge from both lineages. Antibodies CR8033 and CR8071 recognize distinct conserved epitopes in the head region of the influenza B hemagglutinin (HA), whereas CR9114 binds a conserved epitope in the HA stem and protects against lethal challenge with influenza A and B viruses. These antibodies may inform on development of monoclonal antibody-based treatments and a universal flu vaccine for all influenza A and B viruses.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538841/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538841/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dreyfus, Cyrille -- Laursen, Nick S -- Kwaks, Ted -- Zuijdgeest, David -- Khayat, Reza -- Ekiert, Damian C -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Metlagel, Zoltan -- Bujny, Miriam V -- Jongeneelen, Mandy -- van der Vlugt, Remko -- Lamrani, Mohammed -- Korse, Hans J W M -- Geelen, Eric -- Sahin, Ozcan -- Sieuwerts, Martijn -- Brakenhoff, Just P J -- Vogels, Ronald -- Li, Olive T W -- Poon, Leo L M -- Peiris, Malik -- Koudstaal, Wouter -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Goudsmit, Jaap -- Friesen, Robert H E -- GM080209/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM080209/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 14;337(6100):1343-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1222908. Epub 2012 Aug 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878502" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry/*immunology ; Influenza B virus/*immunology ; Influenza Vaccines/*immunology ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neutralization Tests ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*prevention & control ; Protein Conformation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-15
    Description: The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short beta-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280215/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280215/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pejchal, Robert -- Doores, Katie J -- Walker, Laura M -- Khayat, Reza -- Huang, Po-Ssu -- Wang, Sheng-Kai -- Stanfield, Robyn L -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Ramos, Alejandra -- Crispin, Max -- Depetris, Rafael -- Katpally, Umesh -- Marozsan, Andre -- Cupo, Albert -- Maloveste, Sebastien -- Liu, Yan -- McBride, Ryan -- Ito, Yukishige -- Sanders, Rogier W -- Ogohara, Cassandra -- Paulson, James C -- Feizi, Ten -- Scanlan, Christopher N -- Wong, Chi-Huey -- Moore, John P -- Olson, William C -- Ward, Andrew B -- Poignard, Pascal -- Schief, William R -- Burton, Dennis R -- Wilson, Ian A -- AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI33292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI74372/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI84817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F32 AI074372-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HFE-224662/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI082362-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI082362-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI033292-14/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA128416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 25;334(6059):1097-103. doi: 10.1126/science.1213256. Epub 2011 Oct 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, nhe Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21998254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/metabolism ; Antibody Specificity ; Binding Sites, Antibody ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Cell Line ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Disaccharides/chemistry/metabolism ; Epitopes ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/genetics/*immunology/*metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; HIV-1/*immunology/physiology ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Mannose/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Mannosides/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation ; Oligosaccharides/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/*immunology/*metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The free and confined axisymmetric inflation of a cylindrical membrane is considered in this study. The problem is formulated to include single and multiple contacts between the cylinder and the surrounding solid boundary. The material is assumed to obey the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive equation. Unlike various finite element based discretization approaches, the present formulation is based on a set of ordinary differential equations governing the deformation field. The resulting two-point-boundary-value problem is solved using the finite element method. Comparison between theory and experiment leads to good agreement. Stick condition upon contact is assumed. Examples of complex geometries including a blow-moulded bottle are treated. An example of simultaneous stretch and inflation is also given.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The non-axisymmetric confined inflation of an isotropic homogeneous cylindrical membrane is considered in this study. The material is assumed to obey the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive model. The continuum-based formulation is adopted, with the resulting equilibrium partial differential equations, governing the deformation field, solved using a Galerkin based finite element procedure. Upon contact, the inflating material is assumed to stick to the solid boundary. The dependent variables corresponding to nodes which have contacted are then fixed for subsequent deformation. In an attempt to simulate the inflation stage of the blow-moulding process, the method is illustrated through some examples of moulded tapered rectangular bottles with centered and off-centred neck. Examples of initial membranes of uniform and non-uniform thickness distribution are examined. Experiments are carried out in an attempt to validate the theory, in particular, to compare the predicted and measured final thickness distributions of blow-moulded containers.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 35 (1995), S. 1852-1863 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The free and confined inflation of isotropic homogeneour membranes of general shape are considered. The material is assumed to obey the Mooney-Rivin constitutive model, and the resulting partial differential equations, governing the deformation field, are solved using a Galerkin based finite-element procedure. The method is illustrated through examples of both free and conflined inflation, as well as simulationeus stretch and inflation. Measurements were carried out on the final thickness distributionof containers blow-molded inour laboratory. These containers typically cover a wide range of geometry adn size, including bottles with handles. Comparison between theory and experiment leads generally to good agreement, despite the limitation of the membrane hypothesis.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Irreversible thermodynamics ; kinetic theory ; polymers ; generalized hydrodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The gist of extended irreversible thermodynamics and generalized hydrodynamics is presented within the context of rheology of complex molecules (e.g., polymers) in this paper. Then, the constitutive equation for stress developed for polyatomic fluids in a previous paper is applied to rheology of polymeric fluids. This constitutive equation is fully consistent with the thermodynamic laws. It is shown that the collision bracket integrals appearing in the constitutive equation can be recast in terms of friction tensors of beads and equilibrium force-force correlation functions if the momentum relaxation is much faster than the configuration relaxation and there exist such relaxation times. The force-force correlation functions reduce to those related to the mean square radius of gyration of the polymer if the Hookean model is taken for forces. By treating the recast collision bracket integrals in the constitutive equation as empirical parameters, we analyze some experimental data on shear rate and elongation rate dependence of polymeric melts and obtain excellent agreement with experiment. We show that the empirical parameters can be related to the zero shear rate viscosity and the ratio of the secondary to the primary normal stress coefficient. Therefore, for the plane Couette flow geometry considered in the paper, the constitutive equation is completely specified by the limiting material functions at zero shear rate and relaxation times.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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