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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-20
    Description: Epigenetic modifiers have fundamental roles in defining unique cellular identity through the establishment and maintenance of lineage-specific chromatin and methylation status. Several DNA modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are catalysed by the ten eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members, and the roles of Tet proteins in regulating chromatin architecture and gene transcription independently of DNA methylation have been gradually uncovered. However, the regulation of immunity and inflammation by Tet proteins independent of their role in modulating DNA methylation remains largely unknown. Here we show that Tet2 selectively mediates active repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) transcription during inflammation resolution in innate myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Loss of Tet2 resulted in the upregulation of several inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, at late phase during the response to lipopolysaccharide challenge. Tet2-deficient mice were more susceptible to endotoxin shock and dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis, displaying a more severe inflammatory phenotype and increased IL-6 production compared to wild-type mice. IkappaBzeta, an IL-6-specific transcription factor, mediated specific targeting of Tet2 to the Il6 promoter, further indicating opposite regulatory roles of IkappaBzeta at initial and resolution phases of inflammation. For the repression mechanism, independent of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, Tet2 recruited Hdac2 and repressed transcription of Il6 via histone deacetylation. We provide mechanistic evidence for the gene-specific transcription repression activity of Tet2 via histone deacetylation and for the prevention of constant transcription activation at the chromatin level for resolving inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697747/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697747/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Qian -- Zhao, Kai -- Shen, Qicong -- Han, Yanmei -- Gu, Yan -- Li, Xia -- Zhao, Dezhi -- Liu, Yiqi -- Wang, Chunmei -- Zhang, Xiang -- Su, Xiaoping -- Liu, Juan -- Ge, Wei -- Levine, Ross L -- Li, Nan -- Cao, Xuetao -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173636/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):389-93. doi: 10.1038/nature15252. Epub 2015 Aug 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology &Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China. ; National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology &Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program and Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer, New York, New York 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287468" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Colitis/enzymology/immunology/metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Histone Deacetylase 2/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; I-kappa B Proteins/metabolism ; Inflammation/enzymology/immunology/*metabolism ; Interleukin-6/*antagonists & inhibitors/*biosynthesis/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Mutations disabling the TP53 tumour suppressor gene represent the most frequent events in human cancer and typically occur through a two-hit mechanism involving a missense mutation in one allele and a 'loss of heterozygosity' deletion encompassing the other. While TP53 missense mutations can also contribute gain-of-function activities that impact tumour progression, it remains unclear whether the deletion event, which frequently includes many genes, impacts tumorigenesis beyond TP53 loss alone. Here we show that somatic heterozygous deletion of mouse chromosome 11B3, a 4-megabase region syntenic to human 17p13.1, produces a greater effect on lymphoma and leukaemia development than Trp53 deletion. Mechanistically, the effect of 11B3 loss on tumorigenesis involves co-deleted genes such as Eif5a and Alox15b (also known as Alox8), the suppression of which cooperates with Trp53 loss to produce more aggressive disease. Our results imply that the selective advantage produced by human chromosome 17p deletion reflects the combined impact of TP53 loss and the reduced dosage of linked tumour suppressor genes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836395/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836395/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Yu -- Chen, Chong -- Xu, Zhengmin -- Scuoppo, Claudio -- Rillahan, Cory D -- Gao, Jianjiong -- Spitzer, Barbara -- Bosbach, Benedikt -- Kastenhuber, Edward R -- Baslan, Timour -- Ackermann, Sarah -- Cheng, Lihua -- Wang, Qingguo -- Niu, Ting -- Schultz, Nikolaus -- Levine, Ross L -- Mills, Alea A -- Lowe, Scott W -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016042/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190261/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):471-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17157. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Hematology and Department of Liver Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and National Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu 610041, China. ; Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Kravis Center for Molecular Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Human Oncology &Pathogenesis Program and Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Hematology &Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17/genetics ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Genes, p53/*genetics ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology ; Peptide Initiation Factors/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics ; Synteny/genetics ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*deficiency
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-11
    Description: De-ubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 is mutated in a hereditary cancer syndrome with increased risk of mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. Somatic BAP1 mutations occur in various malignancies. We show that mouse Bap1 gene deletion is lethal during embryogenesis, but systemic or hematopoietic-restricted deletion in adults recapitulates features of human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Knockin mice expressing BAP1 with a 3xFlag tag revealed that BAP1 interacts with host cell factor-1 (HCF-1), O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), and the polycomb group proteins ASXL1 and ASXL2 in vivo. OGT and HCF-1 levels were decreased by Bap1 deletion, indicating a critical role for BAP1 in stabilizing these epigenetic regulators. Human ASXL1 is mutated frequently in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) so an ASXL/BAP1 complex may suppress CMML. A BAP1 catalytic mutation found in a MDS patient implies that BAP1 loss of function has similar consequences in mice and humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dey, Anwesha -- Seshasayee, Dhaya -- Noubade, Rajkumar -- French, Dorothy M -- Liu, Jinfeng -- Chaurushiya, Mira S -- Kirkpatrick, Donald S -- Pham, Victoria C -- Lill, Jennie R -- Bakalarski, Corey E -- Wu, Jiansheng -- Phu, Lilian -- Katavolos, Paula -- LaFave, Lindsay M -- Abdel-Wahab, Omar -- Modrusan, Zora -- Seshagiri, Somasekar -- Dong, Ken -- Lin, Zhonghua -- Balazs, Mercedesz -- Suriben, Rowena -- Newton, Kim -- Hymowitz, Sarah -- Garcia-Manero, Guillermo -- Martin, Flavius -- Levine, Ross L -- Dixit, Vishva M -- R01 CA173636/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 21;337(6101):1541-6. Epub 2012 Aug 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878500" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone Marrow Transplantation ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Embryonic Development ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; *Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Hematopoiesis ; Host Cell Factor C1/metabolism ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Myelodysplastic Syndromes/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Myeloid Cells/cytology/physiology ; Myeloid Progenitor Cells/cytology/physiology ; N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism ; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-05-13
    Description: Notch signalling is a central regulator of differentiation in a variety of organisms and tissue types. Its activity is controlled by the multi-subunit gamma-secretase (gammaSE) complex. Although Notch signalling can play both oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in solid tumours, in the haematopoietic system it is exclusively oncogenic, notably in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a disease characterized by Notch1-activating mutations. Here we identify novel somatic-inactivating Notch pathway mutations in a fraction of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML). Inactivation of Notch signalling in mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) results in an aberrant accumulation of granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs), extramedullary haematopoieisis and the induction of CMML-like disease. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Notch signalling regulates an extensive myelomonocytic-specific gene signature, through the direct suppression of gene transcription by the Notch target Hes1. Our studies identify a novel role for Notch signalling during early haematopoietic stem cell differentiation and suggest that the Notch pathway can play both tumour-promoting and -suppressive roles within the same tissue.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093658/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093658/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Klinakis, Apostolos -- Lobry, Camille -- Abdel-Wahab, Omar -- Oh, Philmo -- Haeno, Hiroshi -- Buonamici, Silvia -- van De Walle, Inge -- Cathelin, Severine -- Trimarchi, Thomas -- Araldi, Elisa -- Liu, Cynthia -- Ibrahim, Sherif -- Beran, Miroslav -- Zavadil, Jiri -- Efstratiadis, Argiris -- Taghon, Tom -- Michor, Franziska -- Levine, Ross L -- Aifantis, Iannis -- 1P01CA97403/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA105129/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA105129-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133379/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133379-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA149655/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA149655-03/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA105129/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA1328234/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA133379/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA149655/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA141399/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA141399-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA141399/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA143798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 12;473(7346):230-3. doi: 10.1038/nature09999.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562564" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; Gene Expression Profiling ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor/*physiology ; Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/*genetics/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation ; Receptors, Notch/deficiency/*genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-02-22
    Description: Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from alpha-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478770/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478770/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Chao -- Ward, Patrick S -- Kapoor, Gurpreet S -- Rohle, Dan -- Turcan, Sevin -- Abdel-Wahab, Omar -- Edwards, Christopher R -- Khanin, Raya -- Figueroa, Maria E -- Melnick, Ari -- Wellen, Kathryn E -- O'Rourke, Donald M -- Berger, Shelley L -- Chan, Timothy A -- Levine, Ross L -- Mellinghoff, Ingo K -- Thompson, Craig B -- R01 CA078831/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA105463/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA143798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 15;483(7390):474-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10860.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22343901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3-L1 Cells ; Adipocytes/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Animals ; Astrocytes/cytology/drug effects ; Cell Differentiation/drug effects/*genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; DNA Methylation/drug effects ; Enzyme Induction/drug effects ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; Glioma/enzymology/genetics/pathology ; Glutarates/metabolism/pharmacology ; HEK293 Cells ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors/*genetics/metabolism ; Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Methylation/drug effects ; Mice ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-07-24
    Description: The identification of somatic activating mutations in JAK2 (refs 1-4) and in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL) in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) led to the clinical development of JAK2 kinase inhibitors. JAK2 inhibitor therapy improves MPN-associated splenomegaly and systemic symptoms but does not significantly decrease or eliminate the MPN clone in most patients with MPN. We therefore sought to characterize mechanisms by which MPN cells persist despite chronic inhibition of JAK2. Here we show that JAK2 inhibitor persistence is associated with reactivation of JAK-STAT signalling and with heterodimerization between activated JAK2 and JAK1 or TYK2, consistent with activation of JAK2 in trans by other JAK kinases. Further, this phenomenon is reversible: JAK2 inhibitor withdrawal is associated with resensitization to JAK2 kinase inhibitors and with reversible changes in JAK2 expression. We saw increased JAK2 heterodimerization and sustained JAK2 activation in cell lines, in murine models and in patients treated with JAK2 inhibitors. RNA interference and pharmacological studies show that JAK2-inhibitor-persistent cells remain dependent on JAK2 protein expression. Consequently, therapies that result in JAK2 degradation retain efficacy in persistent cells and may provide additional benefit to patients with JAK2-dependent malignancies treated with JAK2 inhibitors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991463/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991463/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koppikar, Priya -- Bhagwat, Neha -- Kilpivaara, Outi -- Manshouri, Taghi -- Adli, Mazhar -- Hricik, Todd -- Liu, Fan -- Saunders, Lindsay M -- Mullally, Ann -- Abdel-Wahab, Omar -- Leung, Laura -- Weinstein, Abby -- Marubayashi, Sachie -- Goel, Aviva -- Gonen, Mithat -- Estrov, Zeev -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- Chiosis, Gabriela -- Nimer, Stephen D -- Bernstein, Bradley E -- Verstovsek, Srdan -- Levine, Ross L -- 1R01CA151949-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA151949/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 6;489(7414):155-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11303.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22820254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Disease Models, Animal ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Granulocytes/drug effects/enzymology/metabolism ; HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Humans ; Janus Kinase 1/biosynthesis/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Janus Kinase 2/*antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Myeloproliferative Disorders/*drug therapy/enzymology/metabolism/pathology ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Biosynthesis ; *Protein Multimerization ; RNA Interference ; STAT Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; TYK2 Kinase/biosynthesis/deficiency/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-08-21
    Description: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (together referred to as OSKM). iPSC reprogramming erases somatic epigenetic signatures-as typified by DNA methylation or histone modification at silent pluripotency loci-and establishes alternative epigenetic marks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we describe an early and essential stage of somatic cell reprogramming, preceding the induction of transcription at endogenous pluripotency loci such as Nanog and Esrrb. By day 4 after transduction with OSKM, two epigenetic modification factors necessary for iPSC generation, namely poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp1) and ten-eleven translocation-2 (Tet2), are recruited to the Nanog and Esrrb loci. These epigenetic modification factors seem to have complementary roles in the establishment of early epigenetic marks during somatic cell reprogramming: Parp1 functions in the regulation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification, whereas Tet2 is essential for the early generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the oxidation of 5mC (refs 3,4). Although 5hmC has been proposed to serve primarily as an intermediate in 5mC demethylation to cytosine in certain contexts, our data, and also studies of Tet2-mutant human tumour cells, argue in favour of a role for 5hmC as an epigenetic mark distinct from 5mC. Consistent with this, Parp1 and Tet2 are each needed for the early establishment of histone modifications that typify an activated chromatin state at pluripotency loci, whereas Parp1 induction further promotes accessibility to the Oct4 reprogramming factor. These findings suggest that Parp1 and Tet2 contribute to an epigenetic program that directs subsequent transcriptional induction at pluripotency loci during somatic cell reprogramming.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Doege, Claudia A -- Inoue, Keiichi -- Yamashita, Toru -- Rhee, David B -- Travis, Skylar -- Fujita, Ryousuke -- Guarnieri, Paolo -- Bhagat, Govind -- Vanti, William B -- Shih, Alan -- Levine, Ross L -- Nik, Sara -- Chen, Emily I -- Abeliovich, Asa -- 1S10RR023680-1/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 138424/PHS HHS/ -- R01 CA173636/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS064433/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):652-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11333.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Taub Institute for Aging, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902501" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cellular Reprogramming ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Exons/genetics ; Fibroblasts/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Introns/genetics ; Mice ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuroaxonal spheroids ; Catecholamines ; Alzheimer's disease ; Pontocerebellar degeneration ; Motor neuron disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuroaxonal spheroids became evident microscopically after the autopsy of a 45-year-old woman with pigmentation of the globus pallidus suggesting Hallervorden-Spatz disease. In our opinion the fine floccular pigment seen electron-microscopically in many of the axonal spheroids is melanin, an end product of catecholamine metabolism. Neurofibrillary degeneration, senile plaques, and granulovacuolar degeneration in the hippocampus produced a picture of Alzheimer's disease. Pontocerebellar degeneration and motor neuron disease were also observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Purpose: In this era of precision-based medicine, for optimal patient care, results reported from commercial next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays should adequately reflect the burden of somatic mutations in the tumor being sequenced. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of clonal hematopoiesis leading to possible misattribution of tumor mutation calls on unpaired Foundation Medicine NGS assays. Experimental Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals undergoing NGS of solid tumors from two large cancer centers. We identified and quantified mutations in genes known to be frequently altered in clonal hematopoiesis ( DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, TP53, ATM, CHEK2, SF3B1, CBL, JAK2 ) that were returned to physicians on clinical Foundation Medicine reports. For a subset of patients, we explored the frequency of true clonal hematopoiesis by comparing mutations on Foundation Medicine reports with matched blood sequencing. Results: Mutations in genes that are frequently altered in clonal hematopoiesis were identified in 65% (1,139/1,757) of patients undergoing NGS. When excluding TP53 , which is often mutated in solid tumors, these events were still seen in 35% (619/1,757) of patients. Utilizing paired blood specimens, we were able to confirm that 8% (18/226) of mutations reported in these genes were true clonal hematopoiesis events. The majority of DNMT3A mutations (64%, 7/11) and minority of TP53 mutations (4%, 2/50) were clonal hematopoiesis. Conclusions: Clonal hematopoiesis mutations are commonly reported on unpaired NGS testing. It is important to recognize clonal hematopoiesis as a possible cause of misattribution of mutation origin when applying NGS findings to a patient's care. See related commentary by Pollyea, p. 5790
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: Genetic studies have identified recurrent somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, including in the Wilms’ tumor 1 ( WT1 ) gene. The molecular mechanisms by which WT1 mutations contribute to leukemogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated the role of Wt1 gene dosage in steady-state and pathologic hematopoiesis. Wt1 heterozygous loss enhanced stem cell self-renewal in an age-dependent manner, which increased stem cell function over time and resulted in age-dependent leukemic transformation. Wt1 -haploinsufficient leukemias were characterized by progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations, including those in known leukemia-associated alleles, demonstrating a requirement for additional events to promote hematopoietic transformation. Consistent with this observation, we found that Wt1 depletion cooperates with Flt3-ITD mutation to induce fully penetrant AML. Our studies provide insight into mechanisms of Wt1 -loss leukemogenesis and into the evolutionary events required to induce transformation of Wt1 -haploinsufficient stem/progenitor cells.
    Keywords: Hematopoiesis and Stem Cells
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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