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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded beta-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLellan, Jason S -- Pancera, Marie -- Carrico, Chris -- Gorman, Jason -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Khayat, Reza -- Louder, Robert -- Pejchal, Robert -- Sastry, Mallika -- Dai, Kaifan -- O'Dell, Sijy -- Patel, Nikita -- Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed -- Yang, Yongping -- Zhang, Baoshan -- Zhou, Tongqing -- Zhu, Jiang -- Boyington, Jeffrey C -- Chuang, Gwo-Yu -- Diwanji, Devan -- Georgiev, Ivelin -- Kwon, Young Do -- Lee, Doyung -- Louder, Mark K -- Moquin, Stephanie -- Schmidt, Stephen D -- Yang, Zhi-Yong -- Bonsignori, Mattia -- Crump, John A -- Kapiga, Saidi H -- Sam, Noel E -- Haynes, Barton F -- Burton, Dennis R -- Koff, Wayne C -- Walker, Laura M -- Phogat, Sanjay -- Wyatt, Richard -- Orwenyo, Jared -- Wang, Lai-Xi -- Arthos, James -- Bewley, Carole A -- Mascola, John R -- Nabel, Gary J -- Schief, William R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Kwong, Peter D -- R01 AI033292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7377):336-43. doi: 10.1038/nature10696.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology ; Antibody Affinity/immunology ; Antibody Specificity/*immunology ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; Glycopeptides/chemistry/immunology ; Glycosylation ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*chemistry/*immunology ; HIV-1/*chemistry/*immunology ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Immune Evasion ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/immunology ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-21
    Description: The general transcription factor IID (TFIID) is a critical component of the eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complex (PIC) and is responsible for recognizing the core promoter DNA and initiating PIC assembly. We used cryo–electron microscopy, chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry, and biochemical reconstitution to determine the complete molecular architecture of TFIID and define the conformational landscape of TFIID in the process of TATA box–binding protein (TBP) loading onto promoter DNA. Our structural analysis revealed five structural states of TFIID in the presence of TFIIA and promoter DNA, showing that the initial binding of TFIID to the downstream promoter positions the upstream DNA and facilitates scanning of TBP for a TATA box and the subsequent engagement of the promoter. Our findings provide a mechanistic model for the specific loading of TBP by TFIID onto the promoter.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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