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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. Here, to identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma, we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One-hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas. Recurrent mutations were detected in 41 genes not yet implicated in medulloblastoma; several target distinct components of the epigenetic machinery in different disease subgroups, such as regulators of H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation in subgroups 3 and 4 (for example, KDM6A and ZMYM3), and CTNNB1-associated chromatin re-modellers in WNT-subgroup tumours (for example, SMARCA4 and CREBBP). Modelling of mutations in mouse lower rhombic lip progenitors that generate WNT-subgroup tumours identified genes that maintain this cell lineage (DDX3X), as well as mutated genes that initiate (CDH1) or cooperate (PIK3CA) in tumorigenesis. These data provide important new insights into the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma subgroups and highlight targets for therapeutic development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412905/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412905/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Robinson, Giles -- Parker, Matthew -- Kranenburg, Tanya A -- Lu, Charles -- Chen, Xiang -- Ding, Li -- Phoenix, Timothy N -- Hedlund, Erin -- Wei, Lei -- Zhu, Xiaoyan -- Chalhoub, Nader -- Baker, Suzanne J -- Huether, Robert -- Kriwacki, Richard -- Curley, Natasha -- Thiruvenkatam, Radhika -- Wang, Jianmin -- Wu, Gang -- Rusch, Michael -- Hong, Xin -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Ma, Jing -- Easton, John -- Vadodaria, Bhavin -- Onar-Thomas, Arzu -- Lin, Tong -- Li, Shaoyi -- Pounds, Stanley -- Paugh, Steven -- Zhao, David -- Kawauchi, Daisuke -- Roussel, Martine F -- Finkelstein, David -- Ellison, David W -- Lau, Ching C -- Bouffet, Eric -- Hassall, Tim -- Gururangan, Sridharan -- Cohn, Richard -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Gajjar, Amar -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Zhang, Jinghui -- Gilbertson, Richard J -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA96832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):43-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11213.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722829" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CREB-Binding Protein/genetics ; Cadherins/genetics ; Cdh1 Proteins ; Cell Cycle Proteins/deficiency/genetics ; Cell Lineage ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/*classification/*genetics/pathology ; Child ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations ; DNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; Histone Demethylases/genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/*classification/*genetics/pathology ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mutation/*genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated the role of RB1 in genome stability and considered non-genetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumour cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, retinoblastomas may develop quickly as a result of the epigenetic deregulation of key cancer pathways as a direct or indirect result of RB1 loss.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jinghui -- Benavente, Claudia A -- McEvoy, Justina -- Flores-Otero, Jacqueline -- Ding, Li -- Chen, Xiang -- Ulyanov, Anatoly -- Wu, Gang -- Wilson, Matthew -- Wang, Jianmin -- Brennan, Rachel -- Rusch, Michael -- Manning, Amity L -- Ma, Jing -- Easton, John -- Shurtleff, Sheila -- Mullighan, Charles -- Pounds, Stanley -- Mukatira, Suraj -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Neale, Geoff -- Zhao, David -- Lu, Charles -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Hong, Xin -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Naeve, Clayton -- Dyson, Nicholas J -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Bahrami, Armita -- Ellison, David -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Dyer, Michael A -- CA21765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA64402/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM81607/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599-03/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7381):329-34. doi: 10.1038/nature10733.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aneuploidy ; Animals ; Cell Death/drug effects ; Cell Line ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Chromosomal Instability/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Retinoblastoma/genetics ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Mutation/genetics ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Retinoblastoma/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Retinoblastoma Protein/deficiency/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-26
    Description: Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929164/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929164/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Singh, Rajinder -- Ong-Abdullah, Meilina -- Low, Eng-Ti Leslie -- Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul -- Rosli, Rozana -- Nookiah, Rajanaidu -- Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li -- Ooi, Siew-Eng -- Chan, Kuang-Lim -- Halim, Mohd Amin -- Azizi, Norazah -- Nagappan, Jayanthi -- Bacher, Blaire -- Lakey, Nathan -- Smith, Steven W -- He, Dong -- Hogan, Michael -- Budiman, Muhammad A -- Lee, Ernest K -- DeSalle, Rob -- Kudrna, David -- Goicoechea, Jose Luis -- Wing, Rod A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Fulton, Robert S -- Ordway, Jared M -- Martienssen, Robert A -- Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):335-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12309. Epub 2013 Jul 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. raviga@mpob.gov.my〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23883927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arecaceae/*classification/*genetics ; Carbohydrate Metabolism/genetics ; Chromosomes, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Lipid Metabolism/genetics ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: To correlate the variable clinical features of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer with somatic alterations, we studied pretreatment tumour biopsies accrued from patients in two studies of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy by massively parallel sequencing and analysis. Eighteen significantly mutated genes were identified, including five genes (RUNX1, CBFB, MYH9, MLL3 and SF3B1) previously linked to haematopoietic disorders. Mutant MAP3K1 was associated with luminal A status, low-grade histology and low proliferation rates, whereas mutant TP53 was associated with the opposite pattern. Moreover, mutant GATA3 correlated with suppression of proliferation upon aromatase inhibitor treatment. Pathway analysis demonstrated that mutations in MAP2K4, a MAP3K1 substrate, produced similar perturbations as MAP3K1 loss. Distinct phenotypes in oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer are associated with specific patterns of somatic mutations that map into cellular pathways linked to tumour biology, but most recurrent mutations are relatively infrequent. Prospective clinical trials based on these findings will require comprehensive genome sequencing.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383766/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383766/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ellis, Matthew J -- Ding, Li -- Shen, Dong -- Luo, Jingqin -- Suman, Vera J -- Wallis, John W -- Van Tine, Brian A -- Hoog, Jeremy -- Goiffon, Reece J -- Goldstein, Theodore C -- Ng, Sam -- Lin, Li -- Crowder, Robert -- Snider, Jacqueline -- Ballman, Karla -- Weber, Jason -- Chen, Ken -- Koboldt, Daniel C -- Kandoth, Cyriac -- Schierding, William S -- McMichael, Joshua F -- Miller, Christopher A -- Lu, Charles -- Harris, Christopher C -- McLellan, Michael D -- Wendl, Michael C -- DeSchryver, Katherine -- Allred, D Craig -- Esserman, Laura -- Unzeitig, Gary -- Margenthaler, Julie -- Babiera, G V -- Marcom, P Kelly -- Guenther, J M -- Leitch, Marilyn -- Hunt, Kelly -- Olson, John -- Tao, Yu -- Maher, Christopher A -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Fulton, Robert S -- Harrison, Michelle -- Oberkfell, Ben -- Du, Feiyu -- Demeter, Ryan -- Vickery, Tammi L -- Elhammali, Adnan -- Piwnica-Worms, Helen -- McDonald, Sandra -- Watson, Mark -- Dooling, David J -- Ota, David -- Chang, Li-Wei -- Bose, Ron -- Ley, Timothy J -- Piwnica-Worms, David -- Stuart, Joshua M -- Wilson, Richard K -- Mardis, Elaine R -- 3P50 CA68438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA091842/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA091842-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA068438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA068438-05/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA094056/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA094056-10/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA94056/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA095614/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA095614-01A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA114722/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA114722-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U10 CA076001/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U10 CA076001-13/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jun 10;486(7403):353-60. doi: 10.1038/nature11143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722193" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androstadienes/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Aromatase/*metabolism ; Aromatase Inhibitors/*therapeutic use ; Breast Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; DNA Repair ; Exome/genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; MAP Kinase Kinase 4/genetics ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1/genetics ; Mutation/genetics ; Nitriles/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism ; Treatment Outcome ; Triazoles/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating cytokine receptor and RAS signalling (67% of cases; NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, IL7R, JAK3, JAK1, SH2B3 and BRAF), inactivating lesions disrupting haematopoietic development (58%; GATA3, ETV6, RUNX1, IKZF1 and EP300) and histone-modifying genes (48%; EZH2, EED, SUZ12, SETD2 and EP300). We also identified new targets of recurrent mutation including DNM2, ECT2L and RELN. The mutational spectrum is similar to myeloid tumours, and moreover, the global transcriptional profile of ETP ALL was similar to that of normal and myeloid leukaemia haematopoietic stem cells. These findings suggest that addition of myeloid-directed therapies might improve the poor outcome of ETP ALL.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267575/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267575/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jinghui -- Ding, Li -- Holmfeldt, Linda -- Wu, Gang -- Heatley, Sue L -- Payne-Turner, Debbie -- Easton, John -- Chen, Xiang -- Wang, Jianmin -- Rusch, Michael -- Lu, Charles -- Chen, Shann-Ching -- Wei, Lei -- Collins-Underwood, J Racquel -- Ma, Jing -- Roberts, Kathryn G -- Pounds, Stanley B -- Ulyanov, Anatoly -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Huether, Robert -- Kriwacki, Richard W -- Parker, Matthew -- McGoldrick, Daniel J -- Zhao, David -- Alford, Daniel -- Espy, Stephen -- Bobba, Kiran Chand -- Song, Guangchun -- Pei, Deqing -- Cheng, Cheng -- Roberts, Stefan -- Barbato, Michael I -- Campana, Dario -- Coustan-Smith, Elaine -- Shurtleff, Sheila A -- Raimondi, Susana C -- Kleppe, Maria -- Cools, Jan -- Shimano, Kristin A -- Hermiston, Michelle L -- Doulatov, Sergei -- Eppert, Kolja -- Laurenti, Elisa -- Notta, Faiyaz -- Dick, John E -- Basso, Giuseppe -- Hunger, Stephen P -- Loh, Mignon L -- Devidas, Meenakshi -- Wood, Brent -- Winter, Stuart -- Dunsmore, Kimberley P -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Hong, Xin -- Harris, Christopher C -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Johnson, Kimberly J -- Obenauer, John C -- Evans, William E -- Pui, Ching-Hon -- Naeve, Clayton W -- Ley, Timothy J -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Mullighan, Charles G -- CA114766/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98413/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765-33/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01GM92666/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7380):157-63. doi: 10.1038/nature10725.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237106" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age of Onset ; Child ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Genes, ras/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Hematopoiesis/genetics ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy/genetics/pathology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Receptors, Interleukin-7/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; T-Lymphocytes/metabolism/pathology ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Most patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) die from progressive disease after relapse, which is associated with clonal evolution at the cytogenetic level. To determine the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, we sequenced the primary tumour and relapse genomes from eight AML patients, and validated hundreds of somatic mutations using deep sequencing; this allowed us to define clonality and clonal evolution patterns precisely at relapse. In addition to discovering novel, recurrently mutated genes (for example, WAC, SMC3, DIS3, DDX41 and DAXX) in AML, we also found two major clonal evolution patterns during AML relapse: (1) the founding clone in the primary tumour gained mutations and evolved into the relapse clone, or (2) a subclone of the founding clone survived initial therapy, gained additional mutations and expanded at relapse. In all cases, chemotherapy failed to eradicate the founding clone. The comparison of relapse-specific versus primary tumour mutations in all eight cases revealed an increase in transversions, probably due to DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy. These data demonstrate that AML relapse is associated with the addition of new mutations and clonal evolution, which is shaped, in part, by the chemotherapy that the patients receive to establish and maintain remissions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267864/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267864/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Li -- Ley, Timothy J -- Larson, David E -- Miller, Christopher A -- Koboldt, Daniel C -- Welch, John S -- Ritchey, Julie K -- Young, Margaret A -- Lamprecht, Tamara -- McLellan, Michael D -- McMichael, Joshua F -- Wallis, John W -- Lu, Charles -- Shen, Dong -- Harris, Christopher C -- Dooling, David J -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Chen, Ken -- Schmidt, Heather -- Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle -- Magrini, Vincent J -- Cook, Lisa -- McGrath, Sean D -- Vickery, Tammi L -- Wendl, Michael C -- Heath, Sharon -- Watson, Mark A -- Link, Daniel C -- Tomasson, Michael H -- Shannon, William D -- Payton, Jacqueline E -- Kulkarni, Shashikant -- Westervelt, Peter -- Walter, Matthew J -- Graubert, Timothy A -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- DiPersio, John F -- P01 CA101937/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-10/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7382):506-10. doi: 10.1038/nature10738.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Institute, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237025" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects/therapeutic use ; Clonal Evolution/*genetics ; Clone Cells/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; DNA Damage/drug effects ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Genes, Neoplasm/genetics ; Genome, Human/drug effects/*genetics ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy/*genetics/*pathology ; Mutagenesis/drug effects/genetics ; Recurrence ; Reproducibility of Results
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-04-25
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes, but millions of years ago genetic decay ravaged the Y chromosome, and only three per cent of its ancestral genes survived. We reconstructed the evolution of the Y chromosome across eight mammals to identify biases in gene content and the selective pressures that preserved the surviving ancestral genes. Our findings indicate that survival was nonrandom, and in two cases, convergent across placental and marsupial mammals. We conclude that the gene content of the Y chromosome became specialized through selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X-Y gene pairs that function as broadly expressed regulators of transcription, translation and protein stability. We propose that beyond its roles in testis determination and spermatogenesis, the Y chromosome is essential for male viability, and has unappreciated roles in Turner's syndrome and in phenotypic differences between the sexes in health and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139287/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bellott, Daniel W -- Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Zaghlul, Sara -- Graves, Tina -- Rock, Susie -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Morton, Donna -- Khan, Ziad -- Lewis, Lora -- Buhay, Christian -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Watt, Jennifer -- Holder, Michael -- Lee, Sandy -- Nazareth, Lynne -- Alfoldi, Jessica -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- P51 RR013986/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):494-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13206.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, & Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics ; Disease ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Health ; Humans ; Male ; Mammals/*genetics ; Marsupialia/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Biosynthesis/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Sex Characteristics ; Spermatogenesis/genetics ; Testis/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Turner Syndrome/genetics ; X Chromosome/genetics ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Members of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcriptional regulators are central mediators of the cellular inflammatory response. Although constitutive NF-kappaB signalling is present in most human tumours, mutations in pathway members are rare, complicating efforts to understand and block aberrant NF-kappaB activity in cancer. Here we show that more than two-thirds of supratentorial ependymomas contain oncogenic fusions between RELA, the principal effector of canonical NF-kappaB signalling, and an uncharacterized gene, C11orf95. In each case, C11orf95-RELA fusions resulted from chromothripsis involving chromosome 11q13.1. C11orf95-RELA fusion proteins translocated spontaneously to the nucleus to activate NF-kappaB target genes, and rapidly transformed neural stem cells--the cell of origin of ependymoma--to form these tumours in mice. Our data identify a highly recurrent genetic alteration of RELA in human cancer, and the C11orf95-RELA fusion protein as a potential therapeutic target in supratentorial ependymoma.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050669/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050669/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parker, Matthew -- Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M -- Punchihewa, Chandanamali -- Weinlich, Ricardo -- Dalton, James D -- Li, Yongjin -- Lee, Ryan -- Tatevossian, Ruth G -- Phoenix, Timothy N -- Thiruvenkatam, Radhika -- White, Elsie -- Tang, Bo -- Orisme, Wilda -- Gupta, Kirti -- Rusch, Michael -- Chen, Xiang -- Li, Yuxin -- Nagahawhatte, Panduka -- Hedlund, Erin -- Finkelstein, David -- Wu, Gang -- Shurtleff, Sheila -- Easton, John -- Boggs, Kristy -- Yergeau, Donald -- Vadodaria, Bhavin -- Mulder, Heather L -- Becksfort, Jared -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Huether, Robert -- Ma, Jing -- Song, Guangchun -- Gajjar, Amar -- Merchant, Thomas -- Boop, Frederick -- Smith, Amy A -- Ding, Li -- Lu, Charles -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Zhao, David -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Green, Douglas R -- Zhang, Jinghui -- Ellison, David W -- Gilbertson, Richard J -- P01 CA096832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA96832/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA021765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA129541/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):451-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13109. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2]. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 92 West Miller MP 318, Orlando, Florida 32806, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [3] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [3] Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA [4] Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] St. Jude Children's Research Hospital - Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA [2] Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553141" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Brain Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11/genetics ; Ependymoma/*genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Female ; Humans ; Mice ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NF-kappa B/genetics/*metabolism ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factor RelA/genetics/*metabolism ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: 'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Devin P -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Muzny, Donna M -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Wang, Zhengyuan -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Minx, Pat -- Mitreva, Makedonka -- Cook, Lisa -- Delehaunty, Kim D -- Fronick, Catrina -- Schmidt, Heather -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Fulton, Robert S -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Magrini, Vincent -- Pohl, Craig -- Graves, Tina A -- Markovic, Chris -- Cree, Andy -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Hume, Jennifer -- Kovar, Christie L -- Fowler, Gerald R -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Heger, Andreas -- Ponting, Chris P -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Chen, Lin -- Cheng, Ze -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Eichler, Evan E -- White, Simon -- Searle, Stephen -- Vilella, Albert J -- Chen, Yuan -- Flicek, Paul -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- Suh, Bernard -- Burhans, Richard -- Herrero, Javier -- Haussler, David -- Faria, Rui -- Fernando, Olga -- Darre, Fleur -- Farre, Domenec -- Gazave, Elodie -- Oliva, Meritxell -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Roberto, Roberta -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Della Valle, Giuliano -- Purgato, Stefania -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- Smit, Arian F A -- Hubley, Robert -- Casola, Claudio -- Schrider, Daniel R -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Quesada, Victor -- Puente, Xose S -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Vinar, Tomas -- Brejova, Brona -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Harris, Robert S -- Miller, Webb -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lawson, Heather A -- Taliwal, Vikas -- Martins, Andre L -- Siepel, Adam -- Roychoudhury, Arindam -- Ma, Xin -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Gutenkunst, Ryan N -- Mailund, Thomas -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hobolth, Asger -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Yoshinaga, Yuko -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Weinstock, George M -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG022064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature09687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. dlocke@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270892" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/genetics ; Cerebrosides/metabolism ; Chromosomes ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement/genetics ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Pongo abelii/*genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/*genetics ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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