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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: The basic body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, yet only a small fraction of the human genome sequence appears to be subject to evolutionary constraint. To quantify cis- versus trans-acting contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic DNase I footprinting of the mouse genome across 25 cell and tissue types, collectively defining approximately 8.6 million transcription factor (TF) occupancy sites at nucleotide resolution. Here we show that mouse TF footprints conjointly encode a regulatory lexicon that is approximately 95% similar with that derived from human TF footprints. However, only approximately 20% of mouse TF footprints have human orthologues. Despite substantial turnover of the cis-regulatory landscape, nearly half of all pairwise regulatory interactions connecting mouse TF genes have been maintained in orthologous human cell types through evolutionary innovation of TF recognition sequences. Furthermore, the higher-level organization of mouse TF-to-TF connections into cellular network architectures is nearly identical with human. Our results indicate that evolutionary selection on mammalian gene regulation is targeted chiefly at the level of trans-regulatory circuitry, enabling and potentiating cis-regulatory plasticity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405208/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405208/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stergachis, Andrew B -- Neph, Shane -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Haugen, Eric -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Byron, Rachel -- Canfield, Theresa -- Stelhing-Sun, Sandra -- Lee, Kristen -- Thurman, Robert E -- Vong, Shinny -- Bates, Daniel -- Neri, Fidencio -- Diegel, Morgan -- Giste, Erika -- Dunn, Douglas -- Vierstra, Jeff -- Hansen, R Scott -- Johnson, Audra K -- Sabo, Peter J -- Wilken, Matthew S -- Reh, Thomas A -- Treuting, Piper M -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Groudine, Mark -- Bender, M A -- Borenstein, Elhanan -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- FDK095678A/PHS HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37DK44746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES01156/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):365-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13972.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA [3] Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409825" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; DNA Footprinting ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Mice ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266106/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266106/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yue, Feng -- Cheng, Yong -- Breschi, Alessandra -- Vierstra, Jeff -- Wu, Weisheng -- Ryba, Tyrone -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Ma, Zhihai -- Davis, Carrie -- Pope, Benjamin D -- Shen, Yin -- Pervouchine, Dmitri D -- Djebali, Sarah -- Thurman, Robert E -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Rynes, Eric -- Kirilusha, Anthony -- Marinov, Georgi K -- Williams, Brian A -- Trout, Diane -- Amrhein, Henry -- Fisher-Aylor, Katherine -- Antoshechkin, Igor -- DeSalvo, Gilberto -- See, Lei-Hoon -- Fastuca, Meagan -- Drenkow, Jorg -- Zaleski, Chris -- Dobin, Alex -- Prieto, Pablo -- Lagarde, Julien -- Bussotti, Giovanni -- Tanzer, Andrea -- Denas, Olgert -- Li, Kanwei -- Bender, M A -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Byron, Rachel -- Groudine, Mark T -- McCleary, David -- Pham, Long -- Ye, Zhen -- Kuan, Samantha -- Edsall, Lee -- Wu, Yi-Chieh -- Rasmussen, Matthew D -- Bansal, Mukul S -- Kellis, Manolis -- Keller, Cheryl A -- Morrissey, Christapher S -- Mishra, Tejaswini -- Jain, Deepti -- Dogan, Nergiz -- Harris, Robert S -- Cayting, Philip -- Kawli, Trupti -- Boyle, Alan P -- Euskirchen, Ghia -- Kundaje, Anshul -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Jansen, Camden -- Malladi, Venkat S -- Cline, Melissa S -- Erickson, Drew T -- Kirkup, Vanessa M -- Learned, Katrina -- Sloan, Cricket A -- Rosenbloom, Kate R -- Lacerda de Sousa, Beatriz -- Beal, Kathryn -- Pignatelli, Miguel -- Flicek, Paul -- Lian, Jin -- Kahveci, Tamer -- Lee, Dongwon -- Kent, W James -- Ramalho Santos, Miguel -- Herrero, Javier -- Notredame, Cedric -- Johnson, Audra -- Vong, Shinny -- Lee, Kristen -- Bates, Daniel -- Neri, Fidencio -- Diegel, Morgan -- Canfield, Theresa -- Sabo, Peter J -- Wilken, Matthew S -- Reh, Thomas A -- Giste, Erika -- Shafer, Anthony -- Kutyavin, Tanya -- Haugen, Eric -- Dunn, Douglas -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Neph, Shane -- Humbert, Richard -- Hansen, R Scott -- De Bruijn, Marella -- Selleri, Licia -- Rudensky, Alexander -- Josefowicz, Steven -- Samstein, Robert -- Eichler, Evan E -- Orkin, Stuart H -- Levasseur, Dana -- Papayannopoulou, Thalia -- Chang, Kai-Hsin -- Skoultchi, Arthur -- Gosh, Srikanta -- Disteche, Christine -- Treuting, Piper -- Wang, Yanli -- Weiss, Mitchell J -- Blobel, Gerd A -- Cao, Xiaoyi -- Zhong, Sheng -- Wang, Ting -- Good, Peter J -- Lowdon, Rebecca F -- Adams, Leslie B -- Zhou, Xiao-Qiao -- Pazin, Michael J -- Feingold, Elise A -- Wold, Barbara -- Taylor, James -- Mortazavi, Ali -- Weissman, Sherman M -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Snyder, Michael P -- Guigo, Roderic -- Gingeras, Thomas R -- Gilbert, David M -- Hardison, Ross C -- Beer, Michael A -- Ren, Bing -- Mouse ENCODE Consortium -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1U54HG007004/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 3RC2HG005602/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- F31CA165863/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F32HL110473/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- GM083337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM085354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K99HL119617/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM085354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL064190/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL110860/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA045508/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK065806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK096266/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024992/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007175/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007348/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007354/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK065806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HD043997-09/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01HG003991/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R56 DK065806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005573/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HG005573/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM081739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099656/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099993/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006997/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006998/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007004/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):355-64. doi: 10.1038/nature13992.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. [2] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, MC-5477 Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Genomics, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and UPF, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Department of Biological Science, 319 Stadium Drive, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4295, USA. ; Functional Genomics, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. ; 1] Bioinformatics and Genomics, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and UPF, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. [2] Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 17/3/303, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Departments of Biology and Mathematics and Computer Science, Emory University, O. Wayne Rollins Research Center, 1510 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Basic Science Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; 1] Basic Science Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. [2] Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. [2] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA. ; Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC), Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Pathology, and Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Yale University, Department of Genetics, PO Box 208005, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8005, USA. ; Computer &Information Sciences &Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. ; McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 733 N. Broadway, BRB 573 Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Centre, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK. ; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, HSB I-516, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; MRC Molecular Haemotology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; HHMI and Ludwig Center at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Canter, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. ; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Genomics program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; Department of Hematology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; 1] Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. [2] Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; NHGRI, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9307, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409824" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; DNA Replication/genetics ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Mice/*genetics ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; RNA/genetics ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/genetics ; Species Specificity ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcriptome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Cancer is a disease potentiated by mutations in somatic cells. Cancer mutations are not distributed uniformly along the human genome. Instead, different human genomic regions vary by up to fivefold in the local density of cancer somatic mutations, posing a fundamental problem for statistical methods used in cancer genomics. Epigenomic organization has been proposed as a major determinant of the cancer mutational landscape. However, both somatic mutagenesis and epigenomic features are highly cell-type-specific. We investigated the distribution of mutations in multiple independent samples of diverse cancer types and compared them to cell-type-specific epigenomic features. Here we show that chromatin accessibility and modification, together with replication timing, explain up to 86% of the variance in mutation rates along cancer genomes. The best predictors of local somatic mutation density are epigenomic features derived from the most likely cell type of origin of the corresponding malignancy. Moreover, we find that cell-of-origin chromatin features are much stronger determinants of cancer mutation profiles than chromatin features of matched cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we show that the cell type of origin of a cancer can be accurately determined based on the distribution of mutations along its genome. Thus, the DNA sequence of a cancer genome encompasses a wealth of information about the identity and epigenomic features of its cell of origin.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405175/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405175/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Polak, Paz -- Karlic, Rosa -- Koren, Amnon -- Thurman, Robert -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Lawrence, Michael S -- Reynolds, Alex -- Rynes, Eric -- Vlahovicek, Kristian -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- P01 HL053750/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL53750/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH101244/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017156/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA143874/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):360-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14221.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham &Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Bioinformatics Group, Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. ; 1] The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Bioinformatics Group, Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia [2] Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1080, Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatin/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; DNA Replication Timing ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenomics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Melanocytes/metabolism/pathology ; Melanoma/genetics/pathology ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology ; Organ Specificity/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: To study the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory DNA, we mapped 〉1.3 million deoxyribonuclease I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in 45 mouse cell and tissue types, and systematically compared these with human DHS maps from orthologous compartments. We found that the mouse and human genomes have undergone extensive cis-regulatory rewiring that combines branch-specific evolutionary innovation and loss with widespread repurposing of conserved DHSs to alternative cell fates, and that this process is mediated by turnover of transcription factor (TF) recognition elements. Despite pervasive evolutionary remodeling of the location and content of individual cis-regulatory regions, within orthologous mouse and human cell types the global fraction of regulatory DNA bases encoding recognition sites for each TF has been strictly conserved. Our findings provide new insights into the evolutionary forces shaping mammalian regulatory DNA landscapes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337786/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337786/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vierstra, Jeff -- Rynes, Eric -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Canfield, Theresa -- Hansen, R Scott -- Stehling-Sun, Sandra -- Sabo, Peter J -- Byron, Rachel -- Humbert, Richard -- Thurman, Robert E -- Johnson, Audra K -- Vong, Shinny -- Lee, Kristen -- Bates, Daniel -- Neri, Fidencio -- Diegel, Morgan -- Giste, Erika -- Haugen, Eric -- Dunn, Douglas -- Wilken, Matthew S -- Josefowicz, Steven -- Samstein, Robert -- Chang, Kai-Hsin -- Eichler, Evan E -- De Bruijn, Marella -- Reh, Thomas A -- Skoultchi, Arthur -- Rudensky, Alexander -- Orkin, Stuart H -- Papayannopoulou, Thalia -- Treuting, Piper M -- Selleri, Licia -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Groudine, Mark -- Bender, M A -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- 1RC2HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 2R01HD04399709/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK096266/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD043997/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37DK44746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):1007-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1246426.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. jstam@uw.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411453" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Conserved Sequence ; DNA/*genetics ; Deoxyribonuclease I ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mice ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Restriction Mapping ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-28
    Description: Hearty and Tormey (1) challenge our conclusions (2), incorrectly arguing that the megaboulders we discuss were shown to originate from the cliff bottom. A number of mischaracterizations are made by Hearty and Tormey (1) in their letter. First, we do not use a “tsunami wave model.” Second, we do not...
    Keywords: Letters
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2010-12-24
    Description: Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns. Integrative analysis with other data (non-histone chromatin proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, GRO-Seq reads produced by engaged polymerase, short/long RNA products) reveals discrete characteristics of chromosomes, genes, regulatory elements and other functional domains. We find that active genes display distinct chromatin signatures that are correlated with disparate gene lengths, exon patterns, regulatory functions and genomic contexts. We also demonstrate a diversity of signatures among Polycomb targets that include a subset with paused polymerase. This systematic profiling and integrative analysis of chromatin signatures provides insights into how genomic elements are regulated, and will serve as a resource for future experimental investigations of genome structure and function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109908/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3109908/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kharchenko, Peter V -- Alekseyenko, Artyom A -- Schwartz, Yuri B -- Minoda, Aki -- Riddle, Nicole C -- Ernst, Jason -- Sabo, Peter J -- Larschan, Erica -- Gorchakov, Andrey A -- Gu, Tingting -- Linder-Basso, Daniela -- Plachetka, Annette -- Shanower, Gregory -- Tolstorukov, Michael Y -- Luquette, Lovelace J -- Xi, Ruibin -- Jung, Youngsook L -- Park, Richard W -- Bishop, Eric P -- Canfield, Theresa K -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Thurman, Robert E -- MacAlpine, David M -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Kellis, Manolis -- Elgin, Sarah C R -- Kuroda, Mitzi I -- Pirrotta, Vincenzo -- Karpen, Gary H -- Park, Peter J -- R01 GM071923/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM082798/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM45744/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RC1 HG005334/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005639/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004258-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004279/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004258/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):480-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09725. Epub 2010 Dec 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179089" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/analysis/metabolism ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/embryology/*genetics/growth & development ; Exons/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genes, Insect/genetics ; Genome, Insect/genetics ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 ; RNA/analysis/genetics ; Sequence Analysis ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: The human genome is arguably the most complete mammalian reference assembly, yet more than 160 euchromatic gaps remain and aspects of its structural variation remain poorly understood ten years after its completion. To identify missing sequence and genetic variation, here we sequence and analyse a haploid human genome (CHM1) using single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing. We close or extend 55% of the remaining interstitial gaps in the human GRCh37 reference genome--78% of which carried long runs of degenerate short tandem repeats, often several kilobases in length, embedded within (G+C)-rich genomic regions. We resolve the complete sequence of 26,079 euchromatic structural variants at the base-pair level, including inversions, complex insertions and long tracts of tandem repeats. Most have not been previously reported, with the greatest increases in sensitivity occurring for events less than 5 kilobases in size. Compared to the human reference, we find a significant insertional bias (3:1) in regions corresponding to complex insertions and long short tandem repeats. Our results suggest a greater complexity of the human genome in the form of variation of longer and more complex repetitive DNA that can now be largely resolved with the application of this longer-read sequencing technology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chaisson, Mark J P -- Huddleston, John -- Dennis, Megan Y -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Malig, Maika -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Antonacci, Francesca -- Surti, Urvashi -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Boitano, Matthew -- Landolin, Jane M -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Hunkapiller, Michael W -- Korlach, Jonas -- Eichler, Evan E -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99 NS083627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99NS083627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007635/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 29;517(7536):608-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13907. Epub 2014 Nov 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Bari 'Aldo Moro', Bari 70125, Italy. ; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383537" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosome Inversion/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10/genetics ; Cloning, Molecular ; GC Rich Sequence/genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Haploidy ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/*methods ; Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-09-08
    Description: Genome-wide association studies have identified many noncoding variants associated with common diseases and traits. We show that these variants are concentrated in regulatory DNA marked by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Eighty-eight percent of such DHSs are active during fetal development and are enriched in variants associated with gestational exposure-related phenotypes. We identified distant gene targets for hundreds of variant-containing DHSs that may explain phenotype associations. Disease-associated variants systematically perturb transcription factor recognition sequences, frequently alter allelic chromatin states, and form regulatory networks. We also demonstrated tissue-selective enrichment of more weakly disease-associated variants within DHSs and the de novo identification of pathogenic cell types for Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and an electrocardiogram trait, without prior knowledge of physiological mechanisms. Our results suggest pervasive involvement of regulatory DNA variation in common human disease and provide pathogenic insights into diverse disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771521/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771521/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maurano, Matthew T -- Humbert, Richard -- Rynes, Eric -- Thurman, Robert E -- Haugen, Eric -- Wang, Hao -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Qu, Hongzhu -- Brody, Jennifer -- Shafer, Anthony -- Neri, Fidencio -- Lee, Kristen -- Kutyavin, Tanya -- Stehling-Sun, Sandra -- Johnson, Audra K -- Canfield, Theresa K -- Giste, Erika -- Diegel, Morgan -- Bates, Daniel -- Hansen, R Scott -- Neph, Shane -- Sabo, Peter J -- Heimfeld, Shelly -- Raubitschek, Antony -- Ziegler, Steven -- Cotsapas, Chris -- Sotoodehnia, Nona -- Glass, Ian -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- F31 MH094073/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK056465/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL088456/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL088456/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R24 HD000836/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R24HD000836-47/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U01ES01156/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 7;337(6099):1190-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1222794. Epub 2012 Sep 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955828" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Chromatin/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Crohn Disease/genetics ; DNA/*genetics ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Disease/*genetics ; Electrocardiography ; Fetal Development ; Fetus/metabolism ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; *Genetic Variation ; Genome, Human ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Multiple Sclerosis/genetics ; Phenotype ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; *Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional ; *Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-09-08
    Description: DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We identify approximately 2.9 million DHSs that encompass virtually all known experimentally validated cis-regulatory sequences and expose a vast trove of novel elements, most with highly cell-selective regulation. Annotating these elements using ENCODE data reveals novel relationships between chromatin accessibility, transcription, DNA methylation and regulatory factor occupancy patterns. We connect approximately 580,000 distal DHSs with their target promoters, revealing systematic pairing of different classes of distal DHSs and specific promoter types. Patterning of chromatin accessibility at many regulatory regions is organized with dozens to hundreds of co-activated elements, and the transcellular DNase I sensitivity pattern at a given region can predict cell-type-specific functional behaviours. The DHS landscape shows signatures of recent functional evolutionary constraint. However, the DHS compartment in pluripotent and immortalized cells exhibits higher mutation rates than that in highly differentiated cells, exposing an unexpected link between chromatin accessibility, proliferative potential and patterns of human variation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3721348/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3721348/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Thurman, Robert E -- Rynes, Eric -- Humbert, Richard -- Vierstra, Jeff -- Maurano, Matthew T -- Haugen, Eric -- Sheffield, Nathan C -- Stergachis, Andrew B -- Wang, Hao -- Vernot, Benjamin -- Garg, Kavita -- John, Sam -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Bates, Daniel -- Boatman, Lisa -- Canfield, Theresa K -- Diegel, Morgan -- Dunn, Douglas -- Ebersol, Abigail K -- Frum, Tristan -- Giste, Erika -- Johnson, Audra K -- Johnson, Ericka M -- Kutyavin, Tanya -- Lajoie, Bryan -- Lee, Bum-Kyu -- Lee, Kristen -- London, Darin -- Lotakis, Dimitra -- Neph, Shane -- Neri, Fidencio -- Nguyen, Eric D -- Qu, Hongzhu -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Roach, Vaughn -- Safi, Alexias -- Sanchez, Minerva E -- Sanyal, Amartya -- Shafer, Anthony -- Simon, Jeremy M -- Song, Lingyun -- Vong, Shinny -- Weaver, Molly -- Yan, Yongqi -- Zhang, Zhancheng -- Zhang, Zhuzhu -- Lenhard, Boris -- Tewari, Muneesh -- Dorschner, Michael O -- Hansen, R Scott -- Navas, Patrick A -- Stamatoyannopoulos, George -- Iyer, Vishwanath R -- Lieb, Jason D -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Akey, Joshua M -- Sabo, Peter J -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Furey, Terrence S -- Dekker, Job -- Crawford, Gregory E -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- F30 DK095678/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM076036/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG004563/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- MC_UP_1102/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM076036/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH084676/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH084676/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004563/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 6;489(7414):75-82. doi: 10.1038/nature11232.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955617" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; DNA/*genetics ; DNA Footprinting ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; *Encyclopedias as Topic ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Mutation Rate ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-09-08
    Description: Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million distinct short sequence elements. Here we show that this small genomic sequence compartment, roughly twice the size of the exome, encodes an expansive repertoire of conserved recognition sequences for DNA-binding proteins that nearly doubles the size of the human cis-regulatory lexicon. We find that genetic variants affecting allelic chromatin states are concentrated in footprints, and that these elements are preferentially sheltered from DNA methylation. High-resolution DNase I cleavage patterns mirror nucleotide-level evolutionary conservation and track the crystallographic topography of protein-DNA interfaces, indicating that transcription factor structure has been evolutionarily imprinted on the human genome sequence. We identify a stereotyped 50-base-pair footprint that precisely defines the site of transcript origination within thousands of human promoters. Finally, we describe a large collection of novel regulatory factor recognition motifs that are highly conserved in both sequence and function, and exhibit cell-selective occupancy patterns that closely parallel major regulators of development, differentiation and pluripotency.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736582/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736582/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Neph, Shane -- Vierstra, Jeff -- Stergachis, Andrew B -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Haugen, Eric -- Vernot, Benjamin -- Thurman, Robert E -- John, Sam -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Johnson, Audra K -- Maurano, Matthew T -- Humbert, Richard -- Rynes, Eric -- Wang, Hao -- Vong, Shinny -- Lee, Kristen -- Bates, Daniel -- Diegel, Morgan -- Roach, Vaughn -- Dunn, Douglas -- Neri, Jun -- Schafer, Anthony -- Hansen, R Scott -- Kutyavin, Tanya -- Giste, Erika -- Weaver, Molly -- Canfield, Theresa -- Sabo, Peter -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Balasundaram, Gayathri -- Byron, Rachel -- MacCoss, Michael J -- Akey, Joshua M -- Bender, M A -- Groudine, Mark -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- F30 DK095678/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA015704/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 6;489(7414):83-90. doi: 10.1038/nature11212.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA/*genetics ; *DNA Footprinting ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; *Encyclopedias as Topic ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomic Imprinting ; Genomics ; Humans ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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