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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-04-08
    Description: Despite the high prevalence and poor outcome of patients with metastatic lung cancer the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis remain largely uncharacterized. Here we modelled human lung adenocarcinoma, which frequently harbours activating point mutations in KRAS and inactivation of the p53 pathway, using conditional alleles in mice. Lentiviral-mediated somatic activation of oncogenic Kras and deletion of p53 in the lung epithelial cells of Kras(LSL-G12D/+);p53(flox/flox) mice initiates lung adenocarcinoma development. Although tumours are initiated synchronously by defined genetic alterations, only a subset becomes malignant, indicating that disease progression requires additional alterations. Identification of the lentiviral integration sites allowed us to distinguish metastatic from non-metastatic tumours and determine the gene expression alterations that distinguish these tumour types. Cross-species analysis identified the NK2-related homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-1 (also called Ttf-1 or Titf1) as a candidate suppressor of malignant progression. In this mouse model, Nkx2-1 negativity is pathognomonic of high-grade poorly differentiated tumours. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in cells derived from metastatic and non-metastatic tumours demonstrated that Nkx2-1 controls tumour differentiation and limits metastatic potential in vivo. Interrogation of Nkx2-1-regulated genes, analysis of tumours at defined developmental stages, and functional complementation experiments indicate that Nkx2-1 constrains tumours in part by repressing the embryonically restricted chromatin regulator Hmga2. Whereas focal amplification of NKX2-1 in a fraction of human lung adenocarcinomas has focused attention on its oncogenic function, our data specifically link Nkx2-1 downregulation to loss of differentiation, enhanced tumour seeding ability and increased metastatic proclivity. Thus, the oncogenic and suppressive functions of Nkx2-1 in the same tumour type substantiate its role as a dual function lineage factor.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winslow, Monte M -- Dayton, Talya L -- Verhaak, Roel G W -- Kim-Kiselak, Caroline -- Snyder, Eric L -- Feldser, David M -- Hubbard, Diana D -- DuPage, Michel J -- Whittaker, Charles A -- Hoersch, Sebastian -- Yoon, Stephanie -- Crowley, Denise -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Chiang, Derek Y -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Jacks, Tyler -- K08 CA154784/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99-CA151968/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-36/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-37/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-38/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-39/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-40/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA151968/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109038/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32-HL007627/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-12/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-13/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01-CA84306/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 5;473(7345):101-4. doi: 10.1038/nature09881. Epub 2011 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471965" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/genetics/physiopathology ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Disease Models, Animal ; Down-Regulation ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; HMGA2 Protein/genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/physiopathology ; Mice ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: Cancer is a multistep process that involves mutations and other alterations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Genome sequencing studies have identified a large collection of genetic alterations that occur in human cancers. However, the determination of which mutations are causally related to tumorigenesis remains a major challenge. Here we describe a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for rapid functional investigation of candidate genes in well-established autochthonous mouse models of cancer. Using a Kras(G12D)-driven lung cancer model, we performed functional characterization of a panel of tumour suppressor genes with known loss-of-function alterations in human lung cancer. Cre-dependent somatic activation of oncogenic Kras(G12D) combined with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of tumour suppressor genes resulted in lung adenocarcinomas with distinct histopathological and molecular features. This rapid somatic genome engineering approach enables functional characterization of putative cancer genes in the lung and other tissues using autochthonous mouse models. We anticipate that this approach can be used to systematically dissect the complex catalogue of mutations identified in cancer genome sequencing studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292871/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292871/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanchez-Rivera, Francisco J -- Papagiannakopoulos, Thales -- Romero, Rodrigo -- Tammela, Tuomas -- Bauer, Matthew R -- Bhutkar, Arjun -- Joshi, Nikhil S -- Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Xue, Wen -- Jacks, Tyler -- K99 CA169512/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA169512/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 18;516(7531):428-31. doi: 10.1038/nature13906. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337879" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/*genetics/pathology ; Animals ; *Caspase 9 ; *Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; *Genetic Engineering ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Lentivirus/genetics ; Lung Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Models, Genetic ; Mutation/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Eun Bae -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Fushan, Alexey A -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Lobanov, Alexei V -- Han, Lijuan -- Marino, Stefano M -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Turanov, Anton A -- Yang, Pengcheng -- Yim, Sun Hee -- Zhao, Xiang -- Kasaikina, Marina V -- Stoletzki, Nina -- Peng, Chunfang -- Polak, Paz -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Kiezun, Adam -- Zhu, Yabing -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Zhang, Qiang -- Peshkin, Leonid -- Yang, Lan -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Buffenstein, Rochelle -- Wang, Bo -- Han, Changlei -- Li, Qiye -- Chen, Li -- Zhao, Wei -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Park, Thomas J -- Zhang, Guojie -- Wang, Jun -- Gladyshev, Vadim N -- AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;479(7372):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10533.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Body Temperature Regulation/genetics ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/metabolism ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics ; Darkness ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomic Instability/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Ion Channels/genetics ; Longevity/*genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics ; Mole Rats/*genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Oxygen/analysis/metabolism ; Taste/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Visual Perception/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Super-enhancers (SEs), which are composed of large clusters of enhancers densely loaded with the Mediator complex, transcription factors and chromatin regulators, drive high expression of genes implicated in cell identity and disease, such as lineage-controlling transcription factors and oncogenes. BRD4 and CDK7 are positive regulators of SE-mediated transcription. By contrast, negative regulators of SE-associated genes have not been well described. Here we show that the Mediator-associated kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and CDK19 restrain increased activation of key SE-associated genes in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. We report that the natural product cortistatin A (CA) selectively inhibits Mediator kinases, has anti-leukaemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and disproportionately induces upregulation of SE-associated genes in CA-sensitive AML cell lines but not in CA-insensitive cell lines. In AML cells, CA upregulated SE-associated genes with tumour suppressor and lineage-controlling functions, including the transcription factors CEBPA, IRF8, IRF1 and ETV6 (refs 6-8). The BRD4 inhibitor I-BET151 downregulated these SE-associated genes, yet also has anti-leukaemic activity. Individually increasing or decreasing the expression of these transcription factors suppressed AML cell growth, providing evidence that leukaemia cells are sensitive to the dosage of SE-associated genes. Our results demonstrate that Mediator kinases can negatively regulate SE-associated gene expression in specific cell types, and can be pharmacologically targeted as a therapeutic approach to AML.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4641525/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4641525/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pelish, Henry E -- Liau, Brian B -- Nitulescu, Ioana I -- Tangpeerachaikul, Anupong -- Poss, Zachary C -- Da Silva, Diogo H -- Caruso, Brittany T -- Arefolov, Alexander -- Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi -- Christie, Amanda L -- Du, Karrie -- Banka, Deepti -- Schneider, Elisabeth V -- Jestel, Anja -- Zou, Ge -- Si, Chong -- Ebmeier, Christopher C -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Krivtsov, Andrei V -- Myers, Andrew G -- Kohl, Nancy E -- Kung, Andrew L -- Armstrong, Scott A -- Lemieux, Madeleine E -- Taatjes, Dylan J -- Shair, Matthew D -- CA66996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180419/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA066996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA046934/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA170741/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM08759/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001082/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 8;526(7572):273-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14904. Epub 2015 Sep 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Campus Box 596, Boulder, Colorado 80303, USA. ; Lurie Family Imaging Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Proteros Biostructures GmbH, Bunsenstrasse 7a, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. ; Max-Planck-Institut fur Biochemie, Am Kloperspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Cancer Biology and Genetics Program and Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Bioinfo, Plantagenet, Ontario K0B 1L0, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416749" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Hematologic data gathered over a period of 4.8 years from 196 owl monkeys,Aotus trivirgatus, were analyzed to find if karyotypic differences existed. It was found that none of 30 animals of karyotypes K-I and K-VI developed hemolytic anemia, whereas 46 of 99 animals of K-II, K-III and K-IV did (p〈0.005). Analysis of hemograms of normal owl monkeys showed that mean percent eosinophils varied markedly, K-I monkeys having lowest counts, 3.2%, and K-VI animals having the highest, 33%. These results establish that idiopathic eosinophilia and hemolytic anemia in this species are probably unrelated but susceptibility to both has a strong genetic component.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Neuromuscular degeneration, nmd, is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse producing progressive hindlimb impairment caused by spinal muscular atrophy. We used an intersubspecific intercross between B6.BKs-nmd 2J/+ and Mus musculus castaneus (CAST/Ei) to map the nmd mutation to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 19 with the most likely gene order: nmd-(D19Se12, Pygm)-Cntf-Pomc2-D19Mit16-Cyp2c-Got1. nmd maps near muscle deficient, mdf, and has a very similar clinical phenotype, but allele tests and histological differences suggest that nmd is a distinct mutation at a different locus. Although closely linked, nmd recombined with the candidate genes muscle glycogen phosphorylase, Pygm, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, Cntf.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1574-4647
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of 40% diet restriction on skeletal muscle fiber area, capillary density (CD) and capillary to fiber ratio (C/F) were compared in 12, 24 and 30-month-old female B6C3F1 female hybrid mice. We hypothesized that diet restriction (DR) would retard the aging effects observed in skeletal muscle, in particular DR would pose opposite effects on skeletal muscle capillarity and fiber area. Samples were prepared for light microscopic examination by standard methods and for morphometric analysis using NIH-image software. There was a significant effect of age on muscle fiber area (p〈0.05). The age-associated decrease in fiber area between 12 and 30 months of age was greater (p〈0.05) in the ad libitum (AL) (37.7%) animals as compared to the diet restricted (DR) mice (29.2%). Diet had a significant effect on CD (p〈0.05) and C/F (p〈0.05). This finding suggests that the lower capillarity in the older DR mice may have been due to their larger muscle fibers. The results of this study support the contention that diet restriction delays the progression of age-associated muscle atrophy.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-4647
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ames dwarf mice, which are small and deficient in growth homone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) live much longer (1–1.25 years) than their normal siblings. It was of interest to examine the response of these animals to caloric restriction (CR) because of the possibility that dwarf mice are voluntarily caloric restricted. We are testing the hypothesis that this possible natural caloric restriction will negate any benefits of an imposed CR on lifespan. Male and female Ames dwarf mice and their normal counterparts have been fed ad libitum (AL) or a 30% CR diet for 25–29 months. Animals were monitored daily and weighed weekly. At 12–15 months of age, CR mice weighed significantly less than their AL fed counterparts (normal females: −42%, normal males: −23%, dwarf females: −18.8%, and dwarf males: −22.2%). Only in dwarf females has this significant difference disappeared with age. At one year of age, a comparison of daily food consumption revealed that female dwarf mice consume significantly more food per gram body weight than normal females and a similar tendency is evident for males. Although they received 30% less food, CR mice ate the same amount as AL mice per gram body weight. On measures of total locomotor activity, CR mice were significantly more active than their AL-fed counterparts. On an inhibitory avoidance learning task, 18–21 month old dwarf mice exhibited significantly better retention than their age-and diet-matched normal counterparts. Histopathological analysis in aging dwarf versus normal mice suggested that the incidence of tumors does not differ between the two groups but tumors appear to develop later in dwarf than in normal mice. After 2.25 years on the study 27% of AL normals, 52% of CR normals, 74% of AL dwarfs, and 87% of CR dwarfs are still alive. We conclude that Ames dwarfs are not CR mimetics although they share many characteristics. It remains to be determined whether CR will delay aging and cause a further life extension in Ames dwarf mice.
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