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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli -- Briggs, Derek -- Iverson, Heidi -- Talbot, Robert -- Shepard, Lorrie A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 11;331(6022):1269-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1198976.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Education and Human Development, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217, USA. maria.ruiz-primo@ucdenver.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21393529" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biology/education ; Chemistry/education ; Curriculum ; Engineering/education ; Humans ; *Learning ; Physics/education ; Research Design ; Science/*education ; *Teaching
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-06-07
    Description: Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep genome and transcriptomes from 40 different tissues. We identified highly expressed genes encoding keratin cross-linking proteins associated with rumen evolution. We also identified genes involved in lipid metabolism that had been amplified and/or had altered tissue expression patterns. This may be in response to changes in the barrier lipids of the skin, an interaction between lipid metabolism and wool synthesis, and an increased role of volatile fatty acids in ruminants compared with nonruminant animals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157056/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157056/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jiang, Yu -- Xie, Min -- Chen, Wenbin -- Talbot, Richard -- Maddox, Jillian F -- Faraut, Thomas -- Wu, Chunhua -- Muzny, Donna M -- Li, Yuxiang -- Zhang, Wenguang -- Stanton, Jo-Ann -- Brauning, Rudiger -- Barris, Wesley C -- Hourlier, Thibaut -- Aken, Bronwen L -- Searle, Stephen M J -- Adelson, David L -- Bian, Chao -- Cam, Graham R -- Chen, Yulin -- Cheng, Shifeng -- DeSilva, Udaya -- Dixen, Karen -- Dong, Yang -- Fan, Guangyi -- Franklin, Ian R -- Fu, Shaoyin -- Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo -- Guan, Rui -- Highland, Margaret A -- Holder, Michael E -- Huang, Guodong -- Ingham, Aaron B -- Jhangiani, Shalini N -- Kalra, Divya -- Kovar, Christie L -- Lee, Sandra L -- Liu, Weiqing -- Liu, Xin -- Lu, Changxin -- Lv, Tian -- Mathew, Tittu -- McWilliam, Sean -- Menzies, Moira -- Pan, Shengkai -- Robelin, David -- Servin, Bertrand -- Townley, David -- Wang, Wenliang -- Wei, Bin -- White, Stephen N -- Yang, Xinhua -- Ye, Chen -- Yue, Yaojing -- Zeng, Peng -- Zhou, Qing -- Hansen, Jacob B -- Kristiansen, Karsten -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Flicek, Paul -- Warkup, Christopher C -- Jones, Huw E -- Oddy, V Hutton -- Nicholas, Frank W -- McEwan, John C -- Kijas, James W -- Wang, Jun -- Worley, Kim C -- Archibald, Alan L -- Cockett, Noelle -- Xu, Xun -- Wang, Wen -- Dalrymple, Brian P -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/1025360/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025328/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025360/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025506/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jun 6;344(6188):1168-73. doi: 10.1126/science.1252806.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; Ediburgh Genomics, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4815, USA. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Laboratoire de Genetique Cellulaire, UMR 444, Castanet-Tolosan F-31326, France. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-1435, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China. Institute of ATCG, Nei Mongol Bio-Information, Hohhot, China. ; Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. ; AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel 9053, New Zealand. ; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. ; Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China. ; U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Disease Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. ; Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science, Lanzhou, 730050, China. ; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK. ; Biosciences Knowledge Transfer Network, The Roslin Institute, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK. ; School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. ; Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-1435, USA. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu. ; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Animal Food and Health Sciences, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. brian.dalrymple@csiro.au wwang@mail.kiz.ac.cn xuxun@genomics.cn alan.archibald@roslin.ed.ac.uk kworley@bcm.edu noelle.cockett@usu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904168" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genome ; Keratins, Hair-Specific/genetics ; Lipid Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Rumen/metabolism/*physiology ; Sheep, Domestic/classification/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptome ; Wool/growth & development
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Monocular deprivation ; Hamster ; Acuity ; Visual physiology ; dLGN
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of long-term monocular deprivation (MD) on the visual acuity, cortical physiology and dLGN anatomy of the golden hamster were assessed in adult animals which had undergone unilateral eyelid suture at the time of natural eyelid opening. Acuity was measured in a two-alternative forced-choice task in a Y-maze, using a modified method of constant stimuli to vary the spatial frequency of a high-contrast square-wave grating which had the same mean luminance (5 cd/m2) as a uniform grey card. The acuity of the normal (non-deprived) eye of each of two early-MD hamsters was within the normal range (about 0.5 cycles per degree of visual angle), but the acuity of the deprived eyes was reduced by about 0.6 octaves at the 70%-correct criterion. A second reversal of eyelid suture and retesting through the “normal” eye demonstrated that this acuity difference was not attributable to surgical artifacts. Another hamster undergoing prolonged MD beginning in adulthood had normal acuity in both eyes, indicating a “sensitive period” in the development of the hamster's visual system. Single-unit recording from area V1 of the cortex of four early-MD hamsters revealed a shift in ocular dominance favouring the normal eye. The deprived eye's loss of excitatory influence was greater in the ipsilateral hemisphere, but even here 57% of cells were binocularly driven. Only small differences were observed in other receptive field properties. In the dLGN, cell areas in the deprived “lamina” were about 4% smaller than in the non-deprived areas after 5–7.5 months of MD, a difference which was statistically non-significant. However, this difference increased to 19.5% in one hamster in which MD lasted 17 months (p 〈 0.025). The relatively small MD effect observed in the hamster is interpreted as being consistent with the absence of a sensitive “detail-analysing” mechanism in the hamster's visual system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Methyl bromide is the most abundant gaseous bromine species in the atmosphere, with an average atmospheric mixing ratio in the Northern Hemisphere of 10-15 parts per trillion by volume (p.p.t.v.), with values in the Southern Hemisphere 15-30% lower1 5. Important atmospheric sources for ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 347 (1990), S. 521-521 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR-Muller in Scientific Correspondence1 suggests that a selective retention of actinides by the male gonads may induce leukaemia in the children of people whose work involves processing these materials. It is commonly assumed for the purposes of radiological protection that most plutonium entering ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Teaching statistics 7 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-9639
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Osmoregulation ; fos immunocytochemistry ; Hypothalamus ; Vasotocin ; Domestic hen Gallus domesticus ; Japanese quail Coturnix japonica ; Ring dove Streptopelia risoria ; Zebra finch, Taenopygia guttata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Domestic hens were injected intraperitoneally with hypertonic or isotonic saline and killed 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h later. Japanese quail, Ring doves and Zebra finches were treated in the same way and killed 2 h later. Using fos immunocytochemistry, fos-positive cells were visualized in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus. In all species, two hours after treatment with hypertonic but not with isotonic saline, a prominent cluster of fos-positive cells was seen close to the mid-line, dorsal to the anterior part of the third ventricle, in and around the nucleus commissurae pallii. The cell cluster was associated with the dorsal region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and passed caudo-dorsally above the anterior commissure into the area of the subfornical organ, spreading diffusely into the nucleus septalis medialis and the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami. The maximal expression of c-fos was seen 2 h after treatment with hypertonic saline: weak fos immunoreactive product was seen at 0.5, 1 h and 6 h but not after 12 and 24 h. In all birds, 2 h after treatment with hypertonic but not with isotonic saline, fos-positive cells were also seen in the nucleus paraventricularis and nucleus supraopticus. Double immunocytochemistry in the domestic hen with an antibody to vasotocin showed that these fos-positive cells were classical magnocellular vasotocinergic neurones. This study extends earlier studies in birds using lesioning and electrophysiological techniques to identify the precise cellular localization of the avian “osmoreceptive complex” projected onto a stereotaxic atlas.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Osmoregulation ; fos immunocytochemistry ; Hypothalamus ; Vasotocin ; Domestic hen Gallus domesticus ; Japanese quail Coturnix japonica ; Ring dove Streptopelia risoria ; Zebra finch ; Taenopygia guttata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Domestic hens were injected intraperitoneally with hypertonic or isotonic saline and killed 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h later. Japanese quail, Ring doves and Zebra finches were treated in the same way and killed 2 h later. Using fos immunocytochemistry, fos-positive cells were visualized in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus. In all species, two hours after treatment with hypertonic but not with isotonic saline, a prominent cluster of fos-positive cells was seen close to the mid-line, dorsal to the anterior part of the third ventricle, in and around the nucleus commissurae pallii. The cell cluster was associated with the dorsal region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and passed caudo-dorsally above the anterior commissure into the area of the subfornical organ, spreading diffusely into the nucleus septalis medialis and the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami. The maximal expression of c-fos was seen 2 h after treatment with hypertonic saline: weak fos immunoreactive product was seen at 0.5, 1 h and 6 h but not after 12 and 24 h. In all birds, 2 h after treatment with hypertonic but not with isotonic saline, fos-positive cells were also seen in the nucleus paraventricularis and nucleus supraopticus. Double immunocytochemistry in the domestic hen with an antibody to vasotocin showed that these fos-positive cells were classical magnocellular vasotocinergic neurones. This study extends earlier studies in birds using lesioning and electrophysiological techniques to identify the precise cellular localization of the avian ”osmoreceptive complex” projected onto a stereotaxic atlas.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the occurrence and regulation of chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone I (cGnRH I) and chicken gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (cGnRH-R) mRNA variants in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPTA). The study was carried out in the cockerel. Fully processed cGnRH I mRNA (cGnRH Ia) and a variant transcript (cGnRH Ib) with a retained intron 1 were observed in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (POA), the basal hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and testes. Fully processed cGnRH-R mRNA (cGnRH-Ra) and a variant transcript (cGnRH-Rb) with a deletion were detected in the same tissues. In juvenile cockerels, concentrations of cGnRH Ia and b in the POA increased after castration, and this was prevented by oestrogen treatment. In the anterior pituitary gland, the concentration of cGnRH-Ra increased after castration and this was reversed by oestrogen treatment. In intact adult cockerels, oestrogen treatment depressed plasma luteinizing hormone but did not affect concentrations of cGnRH I and cGnRH-R mRNAs in the POA, basal hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, suggesting that locally produced oestrogen, by aromatization, may exert maximal suppression on cGnRH I and GnRH-R mRNAs. In intact adult cockerels, the concentrations of cGnRH Ia and b in the testis, but not cGnRH-Ra and b, were depressed by oestrogen treatment. It was concluded that fully processed and variant cGnRH I and cGnRH-R mRNAs occur in all components of the HPTA. Oestrogen appears to play a role in the regulation of cGnRH Ia and b in the POA and testes, and of cGnRH-Ra in the POA and anterior pituitary gland.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The objective of this study was to establish, for a short-day breeding bird, the male emu, whether the breeding season is principally controlled by changes in photoperiod, and to investigate the endocrine mechanisms involved. Two groups of adult males were subjected to three alternating periods of 150–185 days of 14 h light/day (LD) and 10 h light/day (SD) terminating in a 360-day period of LD or SD. Transfer from LD to SD led to increases in plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, after 82 ± 8 and 73 ± 3 (SEM) days, and an increase in prolactin concentrations after 115 ± 12 days. Concentrations of LH and testosterone began to decrease before transfer back to LD, at a time when prolactin concentrations were approaching peak values. Transfer from LD to 360 days of SD resulted in increases in LH and testosterone concentrations, and these terminated after an increase in prolactin concentrations. After transfer from SD to 360 days of LD, plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone began to increase, after delays of 222 ± 24 and 225 ± 13 days, and were high at the end of the study, while prolactin values remained depressed throughout. These observations clearly show that seasonal breeding in the emu is directly controlled by changes in photoperiod. The dynamics of the hormonal responses to change of photoperiod suggest that, despite being short-day breeders, the photoregulation of breeding in emus involves mechanisms that are currently accepted for birds, rather than mechanisms that have been proposed for short-day breeding mammals. The initiation of breeding in emus is due to dissipation of photorefractoriness by short days which leads to an increase in the secretion of gonadotrophins to levels that are sufficient to support full reproductive condition. The termination of breeding, while days are still short, is due to the antigonadotrophic action of prolactin which, unusually for birds, increases while the days are still short. In conclusion, breeding activity in male emus is strongly controlled by photoperiod. Emus are short-day breeders, but the central mechanisms that regulate the secretion of reproductive hormones seem to be similar to those previously proposed for long-day breeding birds. The pattern of prolactin secretion in emus suggests an important role for this hormone in the termination of the breeding cycle.
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