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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMMON ; HISTORY ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; FAMILY ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; FREQUENCIES ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; early detection ; IDENTIFICATION ; BRCA1 ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MUTATION ; SNP ; MUTATIONS ; POPULATIONS ; genetic polymorphism ; case-control studies ; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; case-control study ; review ; FAMILIES ; development ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; USA ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCERS ; EXTENT ; FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISM ; Genetic ; PROPORTION ; FEDERATION ; INTERNATIONAL HAPMAP PROJECT ; INVASIVE OVARIAN ; PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR GENE
    Abstract: The value of identifying women with an inherited predisposition to epithelial ovarian cancer has become readily apparent with the identification of the BRCA1, and BRCA2 genes. Women who inherit a deleterious mutation in either of these genes have a very high lifetime risk of ovarian cancer (10-60%) and to some extent, increased risks of fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer. These highly lethal cancers are almost completely prevented by prophylactic salpingoophorectomy. BRCA1/2 mutation testing has become the accepted standard of care in families with a strong history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. This approach has the potential to reduce ovarian cancer mortality by about 10%. Although the ability to perform genetic testing for BRCA1 and 2 represents a significant clinical advance, the frequency of mutations in these high penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility genes is low in most populations. There is evidence to suggest that ovarian cancer susceptibility might be affected by common low penetrance genetic polymorphisms like it was shown for several common disorders like diabetes or breast cancer. Although such polymorphisms would increase risk to a lesser degree, they could contribute to the development of a greater proportion of ovarian cancers by virtue of their higher frequencies in the population. It has been shown that the most powerful approach to studying low penetrance genes is an association study rather than a linkage study design. This review describes the efforts that have been made in this field by individual case-control studies and through multi-center collaborations as part of international consortia such as the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19383379
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  • 2
    Keywords: TOOL ; ARRAYS ; LARGE-SCALE ASSOCIATION ; ERROR
    Abstract: Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22794196
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mutation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus is a cause of hyperphenylalaninaemia. Genotype-phenotype correlation relative to the predicted PAH activity may differ at the metabolite level and at the IQ level in untreated phenylketonuria. Discordant metabolic phenotypes have been noted in siblings; influences on transport and metabolism of phenylalanine determining homeostasis may account for differing metabolic phenotypes. We report two siblings of different sex and identical genotype at the PAH locus who demonstrate a difference in phenylalanine disposal. A stable isotope infusion of [2H5]phenylalanine was used to measure protein turnover, phenylalanine hydroxylation and excretion of phenylalanine transamination metabolites. The siblings were observed to have identical hydroxylation rates under the experimental conditions of the study while manifesting differences in renal excretion rates of phenylalanine transamination metabolites and protein accretion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-04
    Description: In this review, we summarize current progress in the genetic epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), focusing exclusively on elucidating the role of common germline genetic variation in conferring susceptibility to EOC. We provide an overview of the more than 30 EOC risk loci identified to date by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and describe the contribution of large-scale, cross-cancer type, custom genotyping projects, such as the OncoArray and the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study, to locus discovery and replication. We discuss the histotype-specific nature of these EOC risk loci, pleiotropy, or overlapping genetic effects between EOC and other hormone-related cancer types, and the application of findings to polygenic risk prediction for EOC. The second part of the article offers a concise review of primarily laboratory-based studies that have led to the identification of several putative EOC susceptibility genes using common variants at the known EOC risk loci as starting points. More global biological insights emerging from network- and pathway-based analyses of GWAS for EOC susceptibility are also highlighted. Finally, we delve into potential future directions, including the need to identify EOC risk loci in non-European populations and the next generation of GWAS functional studies that are likely to involve genome editing to establish the cell type–specific carcinogenic effects of EOC risk variants Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(4); 395–404. ©2018 AACR . See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Genome-Wide Association Studies in Cancer."
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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