postischemic myocardial dysfunction
coronary artery disease
left ventricular failure
coronary artery reperfusion
regional myocardial function
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Experimental studies have demonstrated that myocardium reperfused after reversible ischemia exhibits prolonged depression of contractile function (“stunning”). Despite the multiplicity of clinical situations in which myocardial stunning would be expected to occur, investigation of this phenomenon in humans has been hindered by several major problems, including the limited accuracy of the methods available to measure regional left ventricular function, the inability to quantify regional myocardial blood flow during acute ischemia, the difficulty in establishing with certainty the beginning and end of an ischemic episode, and the uncontrolled influence of variables (such as preload, afterload, adrenergic tone, and inotropic therapy) that have a major impact on postischemic dysfunction. The main problem is to discern whether a reversible defect of contractility is caused by stunning, silent ischemia, or hibernation (i.e., chronic ischemia). This differential diagnosis requires the simultaneous measurement of regional myocardial function and flow, which thus far has not been generally possible. Despite these limitations, however, numerous clinical observations suggest that stunning does occur in various settings in which the myocardium is exposed to transient ischemia, including coronary angioplasty, exercise-induced angina, angina at rest (unstable or variant), acute myocardial infarction with early reperfusion, open-heart surgery, and cardiac transplantation. Recognition of this entity is important, amongst other reasons, because it is likely to cause significant morbidity and because it is potentially correctable with inotropic therapy or even preventable with antioxidant therapy. In addition, the appreciation of the phenomenon of myocardial stunning should allow the clinician to assess the efficacy of reperfusion therapy with greater accuracy and to recognize that patients should not be denied mechanical revascularization solely because of an abnormal left ventricular wall motion. Perhaps the most intriguing clinical implication of the concept of myocardial stunning is the possibility that in patients who exhibit frequent episodes of ischemia in the same territory, the myocardium may not be able to fully recover between episodes and thus may remain reversibly depressed for prolonged periods of time, or even chronically, which could account for some cases of “ischemic cardiomyopathy”. Our understanding of myocardial stunning in humans is still relatively crude and will not significantly improve until studies are performed that measure simultaneously regional myocardial perfusion and function (so that stunning can be differentiated from silent ischemia and hibernation). Future important areas of research should also include the elucidation of whether stunning can become chronic and the evaluation of therapies (such as antioxidant treatments) designed to prevent this contractile abnormality. Further knowledge regarding the clinical significance of myocardial stunning will be essential to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and our management of the adverse manifestations associated with this disorder.
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