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  • 1
    Call number: QZ200:474
    Keywords: Neoplasms
    Pages: xiv, 919 p. + 1 CD-ROM
    ISBN: 0944235158
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    QZ200:474 available
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Immunogenetics 10 (1980), S. 557-571 
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is reported that mice infected withTrypanosoma cruzi accumulate a suppressor substance (SS) in their sera which, when passively transferred to normal syngeneic recipients, can inhibit primary and secondary antibody responses of spleen and lymph-node cells to T-cell-dependent and -independent antigens; spleen cells were found to be suppressed earlier and to a greater degree than were lymph-node cells. Studies on the effects of the SS on normal cells in vitro also revealed that spleen cells were affected earlier than lymph-node cells, although there were no demonstrable differences in the maximum suppression effected by the SS between the two sources of lymphoid cells. Whereas normal mice could be passively immunosuppressed in vivo with the SS, it was found that serum from passively suppressed recipients did not retain measurable quantities of the SS in their sera, indicating that the substance was removed from circulation at an early stage or was diluted beyond effective concentrations. In in vivo transfers of the SS toH-2-similar and -dissimilar recipients it was found that the effectiveness of the SS related to theH-2 haplotype of the recipients.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Blepharoptosis ; Cataract ; Corneal erosion ; Diabetes mellitus ; Glaucoma ; Neuropathy ; Ophthalmoplegia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le diabète sucré peut atteindre le système visuel dans toutes ses parties. Parmi les complications oculaires les plus fréquentes du diabète doit être mentionnée la blépharoptose, qui peut régresser spontanément, répondre à la médication locale avec phénylephrine ou bien demander, au contraire, la correction chirurgicale. Une augmentation du glucose dans le liquide lacrimale se vérifie, au cours du diabète, en l'absence d'altérations structurelles évidentes. La présence d'anévrismes en forme de fuseau ou de sac au niveau de la conjonctive bulbaire est fréquente chez les diabétiques, ainsi que chez des patients atteints d'autres maladies et chez des sujets apparemment sains. Très communs sont aussi, chez les diabétiques, la réduction de la sensibilité cornéenne et, souvent, de petits enfoncements épithéliaux et de plissements de la membrane de Descemet. Le glaucome à angle ouvert semble s'associer d'une façon tout-à-fait casuelle au diabète, tandis que la rétinopathie diabétique, les variations du pouvoir de réfraction et la cataracte sont en rapport plus étroit avec les troubles du métabolisme glucidique. Larubeosis iridis, avec organisation secondaire et blocage des voies d'écoulement de l'humeur aqueux, représente une des complications les plus redoutables du diabète sucré. L'ophtalmoplégie diabétique, autre phénomène peu connu, peut faire erronément penser à la présence d'un anévrisme intracranien, d'une tumeur ou bien d'autres masses qui occupent de l'espace, et déterminer, par conséquent, l'éxécution d'épreuves diagnostiques inutiles. Le médecin qui soigne des patients diabétiques devrait pouvoir reconnaître ces formes et savoir que plusieurs d'entre elles sont inoffensives et ne demandent aucune thérapeutique, que certaines peuvent être traitées facilement par de simples mesures d'ordre médical ou chirurgical et que pour d'autres encore on ne dispose d'aucune thérapeutique satisfaisante.
    Abstract: Resumen La diabetes mellitus puede atacar a cualquier parte del sistema visual. Entre las complicaciones más comunes de la diabetes citaremos la bléfaroptosis que puede retroceder espontáneamente, reaccionar al suministro tópico de fenilefrina o, por el contrario, requerir la corrección quirúrgica. Un aumento del contenido de glucosa en el líquido lagrimal se observa también en la diabetes aun no existiendo alteraciones estructurales aparentes. Aneurismas fusiformes y sacciformes a nivel de la conjuntiva bulbar son corrientes en los enfermos de diabetes, así como también en otros individuos afectos otras enfermedades y en individuos aparentemente sanos. En los diabéticos también se presenta con frecuencia la reducción de la sensibilidad corneal y, a menudo también, pequeñas depresiones epiteliales y plieguecillos de la membrana de Descemet. El glaucoma de ángulo abierto parece asociarse sólo casualmente con la diabetes, a la par que la iridopatia diabética, las variaciones del poder refractivo y la catarata están en relación más estrecha con el metabolismo glucídico. Larubeosis iridis, con organización secundaria y oclusión de las vías de defluxión del humor acuoso, representa una de las complicaciones más temibles de la diabetes mellitus. La oftalmoplegia diabética, otro fenómeno poco comprendido, puede hacer creer erroneamente en la presencia de un aneurisma infracraneal, de un tumor o de otras masas situadas en el sitio induciendo a la ejecución de pruebas diagnósticas inútiles. El médico que curo a los enfermos de diabetes debería poder reconocer esas formas y saber que muchas de ellas son innocuas y no requieren cura alguna, que otras pueden ser tratadas facilmente con simples medidas de orden médico y quirúrgico y que, para otras, no se dispone de terapia alguna satisfactoria.
    Notes: Riassunto Il diabete mellito può colpire il sistema visivo in ogni sua parte. Tra le più comuni complicazioni oculari del diabete va annoverata la blefaroptosi, che può regredire spontaneamente, rispondere alla somministrazione topica di fenilefrina o richiedere invece la correzione chirurgica. Un aumento del contenuto in glucosio del liquido lacrimale si verifica nel diabete in assenza di apparenti alterazioni strutturali. Aneurismi fusiformi e sacciformi a livello della congiuntiva bulbare sono di comune riscontro nei diabetici, come pure in individui affetti da altre malattie ed in soggetti apparentemente sani. Reperti comuni sono anche, nei diabetici, la riduzione della sensibilità corneale e, spesso, piccoli infossamenti epiteliali e plicature della membrana di Descemet. Il glaucoma ad angolo aperto sembra associarsi solo casualmente con il diabete, mentre l'iridopatia diabetica, le variazioni del potere refrattivo e la cataratta sono in più stretto rapporto con alterazioni del ricambio glicidico. Larubeosis iridis, con organizzazione secondaria e blocco delle vie di deflusso dell'umore acqueo, rappresenta una delle più temibili complicanze del diabete mellito. La oftalmoplegia diabetica, un altro fenomeno poco compreso, può far erroneamente pensare alla presenza di un aneurisma intracranico, di un tumore o di altre masse occupanti spazio e determinare di conseguenza l'esecuzione di prove diagnostiche inutili. Il medico che ha in cura pazienti diabetici dovrebbe poter riconoscere queste forme e sapere che molte di esse sono innocue e non richiedono alcuna cura, che talune possono venire facilmente trattate con semplici misure di ordine medico e chirurgico e che per altre non si dispone di alcuna soddisfacente terapia.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta diabetologica 7 (1970), S. 1-54 
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Blindness ; Diabetes ; Diabetic retinopathy ; Pathogenesis of retinopathy ; Proliferative retinopathy ; Retinal capillary ; Retinal detachment ; Retinal neovascularization ; Retinopathy ; Vitreous detachment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume La rétinopathie diabétique fait son apparition 12–15 années après le début du diabète sucré. Environ la moitié de la population des diabétiques présentent des altérations rétinopathiques. L'1–6 % développera la forme qui conduit à l'aveuglement, tandis que les autres sujets auront une vision presque normale. La lésion principale consiste dans la perte sélective des cellules murales des capillaires. Les capillaires rétiniques, qui ont perdu leurs cellules murales deviennent desshunts, ils developpent des extraflessions qui deviennent des microanéurismes avec tendance à permettre la filtration dans la rétine des protéines plasmatiques et des érythrocites. Les mêmes vaisseaux ont la possibilité de former des vaisseaux nouveaux dans le domaine du nerf optique, qui peuvent pénetrer dans lecorpus vitreus, avec perte successive du plasma ou importante hémorragieintra-vitreus. D'autres néoformations capillaires peuvent se trouver dans l'espace potentiel compris entre la rétine et le vitréus cortical. Les constituents plasmatiques et les produits de la démolition érythrocitaire provoquent une rétraction ducorpus vitreus. Cette rétraction détermine une traction sur les nouveaux vaisseaux qui ont des rélations soit avec la surface rétinique soit avec la corticale du vitréus, avec la conséquence des hémorragies récurrentes après un éventuel détachement de la rétine. Les conditions qui augmentent la pression intra-oculaire ou diminuent la pression dans l'arthère centrale de la rétine protégent la rétine des altérations dégénératives de la rétinopathie diabétique.
    Abstract: Resumen La aparición de la retinopatía diabética es fenómeno característico que se presenta a los 12 o 15 años de las manifestaciones iniciales de la diabetes mellitus. Si consideramos un conjunto no seleccionado de diabéticos, se observa que la mitad aproximadamente acusa alteraciones retinopáticas. En el 1–6 % de los enfermos se desarrolla la forma que termina por producir la ceguera; en los demás, la vista no sufre prácticamente alteraciones. La lesión fundamental parece consistir en la pérdida selectiva de las células murales de los capilares. Los capilares retínicos que han perdido sus células murales, se convierten enshunts (derivaciones) de alto volumen y desarrollan «extroflexiones» que se transforman en microaneurismas, con tendencia a dejar pasar a la retina colindante proteínas plasmáticas y glóbulos rojos. Esos mismos vasos pueden dar lugar a la aparición de otros de nueva formación en el extremo o cabeza del nervio óptico, que pueden penetrar en el cuerpo vítreo con sucesiva pérdida de plasma y abundante hemorragia intra-vítrea. Otras neoformaciones capilares de desarrollan en el espacio potencial comprendido entre la retina y el vítreo cortical. Los elementos plasmáticos y los productos de demolición eritrocitaria, provocan la retracción del cuerpo vítreo. Dicha retracción determina una tracción de los nuevos vasos relacionados con la superficie retínica y con la cortical del vítreo, produciendo, como consecuencia, hemorragias repetidas y hasta el posible desprendimiento de la retina. Las condiciones que aumentan la presión intra-ocular o disminuyen la presión en la arteria central de la retina, parecen protegerla de las alteraciones destructivas de la retinopatía diabética.
    Notes: Riassunto La retinopatia diabetica appare caratteristicamente a circa 12–15 anni di distanza dall'inizio del diabete mellito. Circa la metà di una popolazione non selezionata di diabetici presenta alterazioni retinopatiche. L'1–6% svilupperà la forma che conduce alla cecità, mentre il resto dei pazienti conserverà una visione pressochè normale. La lesione di base sembra consistere nella perdita selettiva di cellule murali dei capillari. I capillari retinici che hanno perduto le loro cellule murali divengonoshunts ad alto volume, sviluppano delle estroflessioni che diventano microaneurismi tendenti a lasciar filtrare nella retina circostante proteine plasmatiche e globuli rossi. Questi stessi vasi possono dare origine a vasi neoformati sul capo del nervo ottico, che possono penetrare per breve tratto nel corpo vitreo, con successiva perdita di plasma od abbondante emorragia intra-vitrea. Altre neoformazioni capillari crescono nello spazio potenziale compreso tra la retina ed il vitreo corticale. I costituenti plasmatici ed i prodotti di demolizione eritrocitaria provocano retrazione del corpo vitreo. Questa retrazione determina la trazione sui nuovi vasi che hanno rapporti tanto con la superficie retinica che con la corticale del vitreo, con la conseguenza di emorragie ricorrenti ed eventuale distacco della retina. Le condizioni che aumentano la pressione intra-oculare o diminuiscono la pressione nell'arteria centrale della retina sembrano proteggere la retina dalle alterazioni distruttive della retinopatia diabetica.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Cyclic AMP ; Phosphodiesterase ; Regeneration ; Notophthalmus viridescens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides in regenerating limb tissues change in a manner which suggests that they might mediate neural or endocrine influences upon specific developmental events. Since modulation of the role of cAMP within this process can be achieved through cAMP phosphodiesterase, enzymatic activity, relative intracellular distribution, and the kinetic parameters of this enzyme were examined at several stages of limb regeneration in adultNotophthalmus viridescens. Both forms of the phosphodiesterase displayed decreased activity about the time of bud formation. Total phosphodiesterase activity was reduced between 66% and 85% (as compared to intact limbs) between wound healing and palette stages. Relative intracellular distribution (soluble vs. particulate), however, remained essentially constant, 93%–98% soluble for the highK m form and 61%–71% soluble for the lowK m form of the enzyme, throughout this process. The apparentK m of the highK m form increased more than 2-fold during wound healing then fell to approximately 10% (0.7–1.1 μM) of the value of intact limbs (8.3 μM) during dedifferentiation and bud formation. A return to pre-amputational levels was subsequently achieved. In contrast, the apparentK m of the lowK m form increased (from 0.064 to 0.86 μM) during dedifferentiation and began decreasing thereafter. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that one or more mechanisms are operating to modify either the quantity, activity, or physical characteristics of the cAMP phosphodiesterases and that such changes are instrumental in regulating endogenous concentrations of cAMP in limb tissues during regeneration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0452
    Keywords: Communication protocol ; Formal model ; Specification ; Analysis ; Formal description technique
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Summary A model for communication protocols calledsystems of communicating machines is used to specify a data transfer protocol with variable window size (e.g., HDLC), which is an arbitrary nonnegative integer, and to analyze it for freedom from deadlocks. The model uses a combination of finite state machines and variables. This allows the size of the specification (i.e., number of states and variables) to be linear in the window size, a considerable reduction from the pure finite state machine model. A new type of analysis is demonstrated which we callsystem state analysis. This is similar to thereachability analysis used in the pure finite state model, but it provides substantial simplication by reducing the number of states generated. For example, with the protocol in this paper, ifw is the window size, then the global analysis producesO(w 5) states, while the system state analysis producesO(w 3) states. The system state analysis is then combined with an inductive proof, extending the analysis to all nonnegative integersw.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Distributed computing 2 (1987), S. 104-112 
    ISSN: 1432-0452
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A technique is presented for constructing a finite state protocol from an originally given finite state specification of one process. We present three constructions, showing that they each provide send-receive symmetric solutions which are “selfsynchronizing”. Two lemmas are proved that provide insight into the types of interactions that arise in these types of finite state protocols. In essence we show that interactions occur between the processes only through “isomorphic transitions” and that during any interaction between the processes at most one of the two FIFO queues of messages is nonempty.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Distributed computing 7 (1993), S. 35-42 
    ISSN: 1432-0452
    Keywords: Alternating-bit protocol ; Communication protocols ; Convergence ; Self-stabilization ; System specification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Summary Astabilizing system is one which if started at any state is guaranteed to reach a state after which the system cannot deviate from its intended specification. In this paper, we propose a new variation of this notion, called pseudo-stabilization. Apseudo-stabilizing system is one which if started at any state is guaranteed to reach a state after which the system does not deriate from its intended specification. Thus, the difference between the two notions comes down to the difference between “cannot” and “does not” — a difference that hardly matters in many practical situations. As it happens, a number of well-known systems, for example the alternating-bit protocol, are pseudo-stabilizing but not stabilizing. We conclude that one should not try to make any such system stabilizing, especially if stabilization comes at a high price.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary A photovoltaic cell or solar cell suitably mounted to look at a small portion of the sky and connected to a sensitive recorder yields considerable information as to the condition of the sky. The author has used such a simple device for many years and it is found that familiarity with the type of trace, which is in response to the changes in reflected light from clouds, will permit a good estimate of the type of clouds that are present. The presentation of such cloud information on a standard potentiometer or galvanometer type recorder is very convenient when correlating cloud conditions with other variables being recorded on similar types of recorders.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cyclic AMP is believed to play a role in limb regeneration. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, endogenous levels of cyclic AMP in regenerating tissues of normal and of hypophysectomized adult newts were estimated. In normally regenerating limbs, cyclic AMP levels were depressed 7 days after amputation and were elevated at 14 and 21 days. In contrast, limb tissues of hypophysectomized newts displayed elevated cyclic AMP levels at 7, 14 and 21 days after amputation. A correlation exists between depressed levels of cyclic AMP and the occurrence of dedifferentiation and elevated levels of cyclic AMP and morphogenesis. Although elevated cyclic AMP levels later in regeneration might influence morphogenesis, depressed levels of cyclic AMP alone appear inadequate to account for dedifferentiation.
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