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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  126. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20090428-20090501; München; DOC09dgch11574 /20090423/
    Publication Date: 2009-05-06
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Laparoscopy ; Cholecystojejunostomy ; Gastrojejunostomy ; Palliation ; Pancreatic neoplasm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Although laparoscopy reveals undetected metastases in many patients with pancreatic cancer, most surgeons have chosen to proceed directly with laparotomy in an attempt at resection or for palliation of biliary and gastric outlet obstruction. In an effort to overcome this limitation, this study attempted to determine the feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy. Methods: Under general anesthesia, seven pigs underwent laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy using either a hand-sutured or the stapled/sutured technique. Results: Mean operating time was less with the stapled/sutured vs hand-sutured technique (150±21 vs 230±13 min, P〈0.05). All animals recovered completely and there was no change in their weight or liver function tests as a result of the procedure. At sacrifice, all anastomoses were patent, although some were significantly narrowed in these unobstructed animals. Conclusions: These results suggest that simultaneous laparoscopic palliation of biliary and gastric outlet obstruction is feasible. We believe these results warrant further study in the clinical setting.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, strain Bs 5, oxidized 3-chlorobenzoate only in the presence of a readily available energy source such as succinate or pyruvate. Cultures of the organism growing in the presence of 3-chlorobenzoate at concentrations greater than 250 μM turned darkbrown on prolonged incubation. After centrifugation and acidificition of the supernatants to pH 2, a dark pigment could be precipitated. It was shown to contain bound chlorine and probably originated from 3-chlorocatechol and 4-chlorocatechol, which accumulated in cultures growing in the presence of 3-chlorobenzoate. 3-Chlorobenzoate induced the ability to oxidize benzoate and catechol in the bacteria, the latter by orthofission. In the presence of an energy source, 3-chlorobenzoate-induced cells oxidized 3-chlorobenzoate at a rate, which was about 25% of the turnover rate for benzoate. In a continuous culture of the organism, growing in the presence of 1 mM 3-chlorobenzoate at a dilution rat of 0.025 h−1, all culture parameters including the ability of the cells to oxidize benzoate, were oscillating. This oscillation was attributed to the transient build-up of toxic concentrations of chlorocatechols. 4-chlorocatechol was shown to be about six times more toxic than 3-chlorobenzoate. In another series of continuous culture experiments, 3-chlorobenzoate induced the synthesis of the benzoate oxidizing enzyme system of A. calcoaceticus strain Bs 5 at a concentration of 2.5 μM, but appeared to lose its inducing potential towards this enzyme system at about 0.5 μM.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Pseudomonas multivorans strain An 1 used aniline but not chloroanilines as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. The aniline-adapted cells, however, were able to oxygenate chloroanilines. Relative oxygenation rates for aniline, 2-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-chloroaniline, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were 100, 46, 66, 20, and 3%, respectively. The first intermediates in the metabolism of chloroanilines were chlorocatechols. 3-Chlorocatechol accumulated during growth of the organism in the presence of 2-chloroaniline, whereas 4-chlorocatechol was an intermediate metabolite of 3-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline. Chloroanilines were able to induce synthesis of the aniline oxygenating enzyme system of Pseudomonas multivorans strain An 1. In continuous culture experiments, induction of this enzyme system appeared to depend on cell density, concentration, toxicity, and pK-values of aniline or chloroanilines. Studies with 14C-labelled 3-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline showed that the turnover of chloroanilines did not cease with the formation of chlorocatechols, because radioactivity was detected in the CO2 released and in bacterial cell components. The results suggest that the turnover of chloroanilines is due to metabolism rather than to cometabolism.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Pseudomonas multivorans strain An 1 was isolated from forest soil after enrichment in a medium containing 0.1% aniline as the sole source of carbon and energy. Increasing aniline concentrations increasingly inhibited bacterial growth. At pH 7, aniline concentrations greater than 16mM were toxic enough to completely arrest growth. The optimal pH for growth on aniline was 6.5. On binary mixtures of aniline and additional carbon sources, diauxic growth was observed. The addition carbon sources caused various degrees of repression of the aniline catabolizing enzyme system. The fastest induction of this system occurred at pH 4, suggesting that protonization of the aniline molecule is crucial.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: [14C]Phosphinothricin ; Cometabolism in soil ; Deamination ; Decarboxylation ; Nitrogen source ; Soil bacteria ; Herbicide degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Degradation of the herbicide phosphinothricin (L-homoalanine-4-yl-(methyl)-phosphinic acid) in a phaeozem was investigated by monitoring the 14CO2 release from [1-14C] and [3,4-14C]phosphinothricin. The degradation was largely due to microbial activity, since the rate decreased by more than 95% when the soil was sterilized by γ-radiation. Data obtained with both labels suggested that decarboxylation of phosphinothricin preceded oxidation of its C-atoms 3 and 4, since a metabolite, probably 3-methylphosphinico-propanoic acid, was only labelled when [3,4-14C]phosphinothricin was used as the substrate. Maximum rates of 14CO2 production from both the 1- and 3,4-label positions occurred without a lag phase during the breakdown of phosphinothricin as monitored for a total of 30 days at 5-day intervals. This result indicated that a phosphinothricin-degrading microbial community was already present in the soil. With low concentrations of [1-14C]phosphinothricin (10.7 mg kg-1 soil), complete decarboxylation at 25°C was observed within 30 days of incubation, compared to 15.9% 14CO2 release from [3,4-14C]phosphinothricin. Increasing the quantity of the herbicide in the soil (10.7–1372 mg kg-1) resulted in increased degradation rates, irrespective of whether the herbicide was labelled in the positions 1 or 3 and 4. Addition of glucose and other carbohydrates stimulated 14CO2 release while addition of a yeast extract had a negative effect. Glucose stimulation was reversed by ammonium nitrate, suggesting that the microorganisms were using the herbicide as a source of N.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Heavy metals ; Soil bacterial community ; Diversity ; Biochemical capability ; Aromatic substrates ; Cluster analysis ; Rarefaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary A method for simultaneous estimation of the impact of heavy metal stress on the diversity and the degradative capability of soil bacteria was developed and tested. It is based on the ability of soil bacteria to use aromatic substances as C sources. Though these characters were selected to indicate specific biochemical potential, they were sufficiently capable of differentiating the isolated strains into biochemical types. Using these characters implied that only organisms capable of growing at the expense of aromatics were tested. However, this made it possible to restrict the number of assays to 20 and to test up to 200 isolates per soil sample. In three out of five experiments, we found that heavy metal stress definitely decreased the diversity of bacteria in a flora. In two other experiments, an unchanged or even higher diversity in the metal-contaminated soils was observed. These unexpected results may have been caused by a high soil pH rendering metals unavailable or by selection of fast-growing strains in the control soil (decrease in evenness). The relative scoring of all characters in a community (also the average number of substrates used per isolate) was not a reliable indicator of changes in the degradative capability of bacterial communities. However, the ratio of the 10 lowest-scoring to the 10 highest-scoring out of the 20 characters tested was capable of indicating these changes. In all heavy-metal-affected bacterial communities so far tested, this ratio was lower than in the corresponding unaffected communities. These data suggest that some of the rare biochemical capabilities of bacterial flora were lost following contamination of soils by heavy metals.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Heavy metals ; Soil bacterial communities ; Aromatic substrates ; Loss of degradative capabilities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The degradative capabilities of six heavy-metal-affected and six unaffected bacterial communities from Canadian and German soils were determined by enumerating colony-forming units on 20 specific media. Each of these contained an aromatic substrate as the sole source of C and energy. Comparisons of plate counts revealed that heavy metal stress caused a decrease in the eveness of the distribution of the 20 degradative capabilities This suggests that in heavy-metal-affected bacterial communities, relatively rare degradative capabilities, irrespective of their nature, are even rarer than in unaffected communities, while the reverse is true for more common capabilities. The results are discussed with respect to the ease with which aromatic substrates can serve as C and energy sources.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aromatic substrates ; Regulation ; Alternating induction and repression ; Continuous culture ; Pseudomonas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pseudomonas testosteroni metabolized 4-hydroxycinnamate by an initial cleavage of the side chain to yield acetate and the aromatic moiety, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The latter was further oxidized via 4-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate, which underwent meta cleavage. During growth of the organism on 4-hydroxycinnamate, the $$Q_{O_2 } ^{\max } $$ for acetate showed an undulating pattern, which was attributed to alternating induction and repression of enzymes involved in the oxidation of acetate. Repression was caused either by 4-hydroxybenzoate or by its later metabolites, formate and pyruvate. In batch culture, P. testosteroni oxidized mixtures of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxycinnamate in a diauxic pattern. The capacity to oxidize 4-hydroxycinnamate appeared in the cells before 4-hydroxybenzoate was exhausted, indicating that the enzymes catalysing the conversion of 4-hydroxycinnamate into 4-hydroxybenzoate. were induced despite the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The induction of these early enzymes of 4-hydroxycinnamate catabolism started when the molar concentration ratio of 4-hydroxybenzoate to 4-hydroxycinnamate fell below a value of 0.3. In continuous culture of P. testosteroni on a mixture of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxycinnamate, both substrates were almost completely utilized up to a dilution rate of about 0.5/h. At higher dilution rates, 4-hydroxycinnamate was decreasingly utilized so that eventually at a dilution rate of 0.74/h, its effluent concentration equalled its influent concentration. At D M, a utilization ratio of 1.23 in favour of 4-hydroxybenzoate was found to become established in the culture. The $$Q_{O_2 } ^{\max } $$ of the cells for acetate was maximal at a dilution rate of 0.38/h and decreased before 4-hydroxycinnamate utilization was at its peak at 0.59/h. This suggested that it was mainly the aromatic moiety of 4-hydroxycinnamate which was metabolized at high dilution rates. The failure to utilize acetate at high dilution rates was apparently due to the repression of its catabolic enzymes by later metabolites of 4-hydroxybenzoate and to the relatively low concentration of acetate in the fermenter. This low concentration, due to the continuous washout of acetate, prevented it from relieving the repression.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pseudomonads ; Agrobacterium ; Torulopsis ; Degradation Sequences ; Glucose-Effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pseudomonas acidovorans and P. putida, isolated from an enrichment culture with casein hydrolysate, and Agrobacterium radiobacter and Torulopsis sp., isolated from a glucose enrichment, were compared with respect to the physiology of ammonification. Decreasing ammonifying ability as well as increasing repression of the synthesis of amino acid degrading enzymes by glucose were found in the above order of organisms. In degradation sequences, observed with P. putida and A. radiobacter as test organisms, substances dissimilated prior to others had both, enhancing and repressing effects on the oxidation of the other compounds. This fact was parallelled by the observation, that in these two bacteria, glucose and single amino acids, when added to the same medium, exerted mutual repression of the synthesis of catabolic enzymes of their partners. The ecological significance of this type of regulation has been discussed.
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