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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Infantile hepatic neoplasm ; Radiologic ; pathologic correlation ; Hepatoblastoma ; Embryonal sarcoma ; Hemangioendothelioma ; Mesenchymal hamartoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Only 1–2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Heart neoplasm – Heart valves – Magnetic resonance imaging – Tomography, X-ray computed, echocardiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We describe the findings from various cross-sectional imaging modalities in patients with cardiac valve adherent masses. The techniques are discussed, and imaging findings are compared with the results of cardiac surgery. All three patients had neurological symptoms and/or cardiac murmurs. Transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography revealed the cardiac mass in all three. For differentiation of thrombus and cardiac neoplasm magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed in all three patients and electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) in two. Fast segmented cine gradient-echo MRI techniques provided mass depiction in all patients, while T1-weighted spin-echo imaging failed in mass detection in one patient. None of the patients showed evidence of valve regurgitation or stenosis in flow sensitive cine MRI. EBCT excluded mass calcifications in both patients and reliably demonstrated the valve attached lesions. Although echocardiography is the modality of choice in evaluating cardiac masses and especially valve attached masses, MRI and EBCT provide additional information about tissue characteristics and allows an excellent overview of the cardiac and paracardiac morphology. Fast segmented cine gradient-echo MRI is especially able to depict even small tumors attached to rapidly moving cardiac valves, and valve competence can be easily assessed within the same examination.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Liver neoplasm ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Tissue characterisation ; Turbo spin echo sequences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To determine whether turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences can replace conventional T2-weighted spin echo (SE) sequences in MRI of the liver, 40 patients with focal liver lesions were imaged at 0.5 T. A T2-weighted SE sequences (TR/TE 1800/90 ms, number of signals averaged [NEX]=2, scan time=7:16 min), a TSE sequence (TR/TE 1800/90 ms, NEX=4, number of echos per excitation=13, echo spacing=12.9 ms, scan time=4:16 min) and a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 350/15 ms, NEX=2, scan time=4:21 min) were obtained and image quality, lesion detectability and lesion differentiation were evaluated qualitatively by subjective assessment using scores and quantitatively by lesion-liver contrast-to-noise (CNR) and tumour/liver signal intensity (SI) ratios. The image quality of the TSE sequence was substantially better compared with the T2-weighted SE sequence due to a reduction in motion artefacts and better delineation of anatomical details. Of a total of 158 visible lesions the T1-weighted SE, TSE, and T2-weighted SE sequences showed 91%, 81% and 65% of the lesions, respectively. Thus the TSE sequence depicted 24% (P〈 0.001) more lesions than the T2-weighted SE sequence. In all types of pathology the lesion-liver CNR of the TSE sequence was significantly (P〈 0.001) higher compared to the CNR of the T2-weighted SE sequence (+ 55–65%), indicating superior lesion conspicuity. Lesion characterization was equally good on the two T2-weighted sequences with no difference in the tumour/liver SI ratio. Using a criterion of tumour/liver SI ratio equal to or higher than 2, haemangiomas larger than 1 cm in diameter could be differentiated from other lesions with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 96%, respectively. Our results indicate that the TSE sequence is suitable for replacing the conventional T2-weighted SE sequence in MRI of focal liver lesions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: CT ; Coronary disease ; Coronary arteriosclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. To identify patients with increased risk of having coronary artery disease (CAD), electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used for years for quantifying calcifications of the coronary arteries. The first direct comparison between EBCT and conventional CT was performed to determine the reliability of widely available conventional CT for the assessment of the coronary calcium score. Fifty male patients with suspected CAD were investigated with both modalities, EBCT and conventional 500-ms non-spiral partial scan CT. Scoring of the coronary calcification was performed according to the Agatston method. Forty-two of these patients underwent coronary angiography for the assessment of significant luminal narrowing. The correlation coefficient of the score values of both modalities was highly significant (r = 0.982, p 〈 0.001). The variability between the two modalities was 42 %. Mean calcium score in patients with significant coronary luminal narrowing (n = 37) was 1104 ± 1089 with EBCT and 1229 ± 1327 with conventional CT. In patients without luminal narrowing (n = 5) mean calcium score was 73 ± 57 with EBCT and 26 ± 35 with conventional CT. Although images of the heart from conventional CT may suffer from cardiac motion artifacts, conventional CT has the potential to identify patients with CAD with accuracy similar to EBCT.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words. Lung ; Lung nodule ; Lung neoplasms ; High-resolution CT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to analyze different characteristics on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) that help differentiate benign solitary pulmonary lesions (BSPLs) from malignant solitary pulmonary lesions (MSPLs). High-resolution computed tomography was performed on 104 consecutive patients with SPLs. The whole lesion was examined with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a 12-cm field of view. All lesions were surgically excised within 24 h of the CT examination. Satellite nodules, cavitations, and necrosis were found only in MSPLs. Useful characteristics for the differentiation of BSPLs from MSPLs were the presence of spicules (p 〈 0.00005), spicules extending to the visceral pleura (p 〈 0.0005), the vessel sign (p 〈 0.0005), pleural retraction (p 〈 0.001), circumscribed pleural thickening (p 〈 0.001), the bronchus sign (p 〈 0.005), the presence of ground-glass attenuation adjacent to the SPL (p 〈 0.01), the density of the lesion (p 〈 0.05), and the length of spicules (p 〈 0.05). Using the significant characteristics p 〈 0.01 for the identification of MSPLs, a sensitivity of 91.4 % and a specificity of 56.5 % (accuracy of 83.7 %) was found. A precise morphological assessment of the periphery of the pulmonary lesion is necessary. The HRCT technique is useful in differentiation of BSPLs from MSPLs. However, metastases strongly resembled benign lesions in terms of size and edge type, and chronic inflammatory pseudotumors as a group mimic MSPLs.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Tomography, X-ray computed – Coronary disease – Coronary atherosclerosis – Multirow-detector computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. This contribution reviews the pathology and morphology of coronary calcifications. It summarizes the indications for investigation of the coronary arteries. The standard protocols for scan acquisition using electron beam and conventional computed tomography are described as well as various methods for evaluation such as the traditional Agatston scoring method and the newer three-dimensional scoring algorithms. Guidelines for interpreting scores are also reviewed. Major limitations of the reproducibility of the calcium score measurement are summarized. Future aspects of multirow-detector spiral computed tomography with retrospective electrocardiographic triggering for quantifying coronary calcium are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Computed tomography (CT) ; spiral technology ; Carotid arteries ; CT ; Vertebral arteries ; CT ; Computed tomography (CT) ; image processing ; Computed tomography (CT) ; threedimensional visualization ; Computed tomography (CT) ; comparative studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a method for three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the whole vascular system of the carotid and vertebral arteries using spiral computed tomographic angiography (SCTA), that allows accurate, qualitative and quantitative evaluation, of anatomical abnormalities, including detection of additional lesions, and estimation of degree of stenosis. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with anatomical and pathological abnormalities of the arterial vascular system detected by color-coded duplex ultrasound were studied using intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) with aortic arch injection, and SCTA. The carotid and vertebral arteries were segmented using an interactive threshold interval density volume-growing method and visualized with a color-coded shaded-surface display (SSD) rendering method. The adjacent bone structures were visualized using a transparent volume rendering method. Results: In all cases, the entire volume of the vascular system of the carotid and vertebral arteries could be visualized on SCTA, and the anatomical and pathological abnormalities on 3D SCTA correlated well with that seen on IA-DSA. Conclusion: Results of 3D SCTA had a high degree of correlation with results of IA-DSA in the evaluation of the vascular system of the carotid and vertebral arteries. The 3D SCTA with a subsecond spiral CT scanner is useful for the visualization of anatomical and pathological abnormalities in the circulation in the carotid and vertebral arteries and offer a promising minimally invasive alternative compared with other diagnostic procedures.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Temporal bone ; CT ; Ear ; middle ; Ear ; labyrinth ; Three-dimensional CT ; hybrid rendering ; Virtual endoscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Recent developments in 3D reconstructions can enhance the quality and diagnostic value of axial 2D image data sets with direct benefits for clinical practice. To show the possible advantages of a hybrid rendering method [color-coded 3D shaded-surface display (SSD)- and volume rendering method] with the possibility of virtual endoscopy we have specifically highlighted the use in relation to the middle and inner ear structures. We examined 12 patients with both normal findings and postoperative changes, using image data sets from high-resolution spiral computed tomography (HRSCT). The middle and inner ear was segmented using an interactive threshold interval density volume-growing method and visualized with a color-coded SSD rendering method. The temporal bone was visualized using a transparent volume rendering method. The 3D- and virtual reconstructions were compared with the axial 2D source images. The evaluated middle and inner ear structures could be seen in their complete form and correct topographical relationship, and the 3D- and virtual reconstructions indicated an improved representation and spatial orientation of these structures. A hybrid and virtual endoscopic method could add information and improve the value of imaging in the diagnosis and management of patients with middle or inner ear diseases making the understanding and interpretation of axial 2D CT image data sets easier. The introduction of an improved rendering algorithm aids radiological diagnostics, medical education, surgical planning, surgical training, and postoperative assessment.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Skeletal radiology 29 (2000), S. 555-562 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Keywords Diffusion ; MRI ; Skeletal system ; Spine ; neoplasms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This article reviews the principles of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and recent results in DWI of the musculoskeletal system. The potential of DWI in the diagnosis of pathology of the musculoskeletal system is discussed. DWI is a relatively new MR imaging technique that has already been established in neuroradiology, especially in the early detection of brain ischemia. The random motion of water protons on a molecular basis can be measured with DWI. To date DWI of the abdomen and of the musculoskeletal system has only been employed in scientific studies, but first results indicate that it may also be beneficial in these fields. Different diffusion characteristics have been found in normal tissues such as muscle, fat and bone marrow. Also, pathologic entities such as neoplasms, post-therapeutic soft tissue changes and inflammatory processes can be differentiated. Normal muscle shows significantly higher diffusion values than subcutaneous fat and bone marrow, due to a higher mobility of water protons within muscle. Soft tissue tumors exhibit a significantly lower diffusion value compared with post-therapeutic soft tissue changes and inflammatory processes. Necrotic tumor tissue can be distinguished from viable tumor due to significantly higher diffusion of water protons within necrotic tissue.
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