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  • 1
  • 2
    Keywords: COMBINATION ; Germany ; SUPPORT ; GENE ; GENES ; COMPLEX ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; NUMBER ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; CANDIDATE GENES ; TRANSPORTER ; HAPLOTYPE ; HAPLOTYPE RECONSTRUCTION ; genetic association ; interactive ; NO EVIDENCE ; COMT ; ADHD ; ALPHA-2A ADRENERGIC-RECEPTOR ; DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER ; RATING-SCALE ; SHORT-VERSION ; SLC6A2
    Abstract: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, highly heritable psychiatric condition. Neuropsychological and pharmacological studies suggest a dysregulation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission in addition to dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms. Only a few studies have focused on the association of noradrenergic susceptibility genes with ADHD. In this study, we investigated the association of several ADHD symptom scores (German short form of the Wender Utah Rating Scale, WURS-k; ADHD self report, ADHD-SB, and the German validated version of the WRAADDS, WRI) with haplotypes of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2) genes. Subjects were genotyped for three SLC6A2 (rs5569, rs998424, rs2242447) and two COMT single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4818). In addition, psychosocial adversity in childhood was assessed in order to evaluate putative gene-environment interactions. We did not find main effects of the COMT and SLC6A2 NET1 gene haplotypes on any ADHD symptom severity score. Childhood psychosocial adversity was strongly associated with number of ADHD symptoms. No gene-environment interaction was found. A specific combination of two COMT and SLC6A2 gene haplotypes, containing the low functioning COMT variant was nominally associated with low ADHD scores in all scales. Results do not support the hypothesis that common variants in the SLC6A2 and COMT genes in particular are associated with ADHD, but might give some evidence for interactive effects between these gene variants on ADHD severity
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17994190
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0044-281X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Alzheimer-Demenz – Persönlichkeitsmerkmale – methodische Probleme – uniforme Alzheimer-Persönlichkeit ; Key words Alzheimer's disease – personality traits – methodic problems – uniform Alzheimer personality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Personality traits are of raising importance in the investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. The examination of possible correlations between personality traits and the presence of dementia is complicated by some methodical problems concerning the objective, reliable, and valid assessment especially of premorbid personality style of demented persons. There is some evidence that a higher level of education can not be considered as protective factors but seems to delay the progression and modify the clinical manifestation of the disease. How other premorbid personality traits influence the course of the disease is still unresolved. A trend towards an uniform personality alteration in the course of the disease seems to exist. Especially when selecting non-pharmacological therapeutical or training strategies or even in the interaction with the patients, it seems to be important to take personality change into consideration.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Im Rahmen multikausaler Ätiologiekonzepte bei der Alzheimer-Demenz gewinnen Persönlichkeitsmerkmale Betroffener an Bedeutung und werden seit einiger Zeit intensiver untersucht. Erschwert wird die Untersuchung möglicher Zusammenhänge durch methodische Probleme der objektiven, reliablen und validen Erfassung insbesondere auch prämorbider Persönlichkeitsmerkmale von Demenz-Patienten. Während einige Untersuchungsergebnisse darauf hindeuten, daß spezifische Eigenschaften wie beispielsweise ein höheres Bildungsniveau den Erkrankungsverlauf verzögern und das klinische Erscheinungsbild der Demenz modifizieren können, bleibt die Frage, inwieweit andere Persönlichkeitsbezüge und Eigenschaften das Krankheitsbild der Demenz im Verlauf prägen, bislang noch weitgehend ungeklärt. Vielfach wird die Auffassung vertreten, wonach es im Verlauf der Alzheimerschen Erkrankung zu einem uniformen Persönlichkeitsbild kommt. Da es bei der Auswahl nichtmedikamentöser Behandlungs- bzw. Trainingsstrategien bzw. bei der Interaktion mit Betroffenen wichtig ist, mögliche Persönlichkeitsveränderungen im Verlauf der Erkrankung zu berücksichtigen, sind in diesem Bereich weitere Forschungsaktivitäten erforderlich.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Aspartate ; glutamate ; postmortem ; human brain ; putamen ; ontogenesis ; aging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have previously reported that the developmental regulation of NMDA receptor expression in human brain is characterized by a sharp postnatal increase peaking at about age 1 year. We have now extended this work by measuring concentrations of L-glutamate and L-aspartate in the putamen from 45 human autopsy specimens. Both amino acids increased steeply within the first postnatal year after which they remained fairly constant throughout life. There was no impact on glutamate and aspartate levels in putamen of sex, side of the brain, postmortem time and storage time of brain tissue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ; NMDA ; orphenadrine ; patch clamp ; superior colliculus culture ; [3H]MK-801 binding ; cortical membranes ; glutamate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Orphenadrine has been used as an antiparkinsonian, antispastic and analgesic drug for many years. Here we show that orphenadrine inhibits [3H]MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor in homogenates of postmortem human frontal cortex with a Ki-value of 6.0 ± 0.7 μM. The NMDA receptor antagonistic effects of orphenadrine were assessed using concentration- and patch-clamp techniques on cultured superior colliculus neurones. Orphenadrine blocked open NMDA receptor channels with fast kinetics and in a strongly voltage-dependent manner. The IC50-value against steady state currents at −70mV was 16.2 ± 1.6 μM (n=6). Orphenadrine exhibited relatively fast, concentration-dependent open channel blocking kinetics (Kon 0.013 ± 0.002 106M−1S−1) whereas the offset rate was concentration-independent (Koff 0.230 ± 0.004 S−1). Calculation of the ratio Koff/Kon revealed an apparent Kd-value of 17.2 μM which is nearly identical to the IC50 calculated at equilibrium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of neural transmission 103 (1996), S. 403-419 
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Excitatory amino acid receptors ; ontogeny ; human brain ; Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ; schizophrenia ; Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The early appearance of neurotransmitters in brain tissue refers to their regulative functions on the neuronal circuits. Many neurotransmitters have direct effects on neuronal outgrowth and differentiation during brain development, which precede their role in synaptic information coding. Both the neurotrophic and neurotoxic properties of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) have focused special interest on glutamatergic neurotransmission during brain development. Therefore, this work intends to review and discuss developmental alterations of the EAA neurotransmitter system in the human brain, their relation to human brain maturation and implications for pathological processes during early human brain development.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Computed tomography (CT) ; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ; late-onset depression ; late-onset paranoid disorder ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) ; normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) ; primary degenerative dementia ; psychiatry ; ultrasound ; vascular dementia ; white matter hyperintensities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illness. Strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. Distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late-onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neurodegeneration may be of import. Transcranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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