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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  78. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V.; 20070516-20070520; München; DOC07hnod373 /20070424/
    Publication Date: 2007-04-24
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Rat ; Pineal gland ; Pinealocyte ; Rhythms ; Circadian rhythm ; Electrical activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Extracellular single-unit recordings were made during day- and night-time in the pineal gland of urethane-anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. All cells exhibiting spontaneous electrical activity had firing frequencies from less than 1 Hz to about 100 Hz, and their discharge patterns were characterized as regular, irregular or bursting. While most of the spontaneously active cells (n=63) showed a uniform activity level throughout the recording period (30–120 min), a group of 9 cells exhibited oscillatory rhythms with periods of 4–8 min. In addition, long-term recordings across day- and night-time from five cells revealed increasing activity during night-time in three cells, while the remaining two units showed constant activity throughout the recording time (8–20 h). Comparison of day- and night-data in general indicated an overall higher level of activity at night.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Pineal gland ; Circadian rhythm ; Golden hamster ; Electrophysiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In one of the most-widely used species in pineal gland research, the strongly photoperiodic golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, no electrophysiological data on pinealocytes are currently available. To fill this gap, in the present study 185 spontaneously active pinealocytes from male golden hamsters were recorded extracellularly, both during day- and night-time (light: dark cycle 12 ∶ 12, lights on at 07.00 h). As in other species, pinealocytes exhibited action potentials of 1–2 ms duration. An irregular firing pattern was observed in 95% of the pinealocytes, the remainder fired more regularly or showed a phasic discharge pattern. The firing frequencies ranged from 0.2 to 25 Hz and showed clear time-dependent differences. From 07.00 h to 22.00 h the mean firing frequencies were identical, i.e. in the range of 2 Hz; between 22.00 h and 01.00 h mean discharge rate increased to 5 Hz and exhibited a peak of 7 Hz between 01.00 h and 04.00 h, followed by a decrease to 4 Hz between 04.00 h and 07.00 h. Electrical stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion during day-time resulted in an augmentation of firing frequency in some pinealocytes and a decrease in others; during night-time, inhibitory responses only were observed. Photic stimulation, or electrical stimulation of either the optic chiasm or the habenular nuclei mostly decreased the firing rate of pinealocytes. Compared to other mammalian species, the electrophysiological properties of golden hamster pinealocytes appear to be basically similar.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Central innervation ; melatonin synthesis ; pineal gland ; rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To investigate a possible central neural influence on nocturnal pineal metabolic activity, frontal transsections of the stria medullaris thalami were conducted. Enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis, i.e. N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyl-transferase, exhibited reduced activities in operated animals when compared to controls. These results indicate a modulatory role of central structures on noctural pineal indole metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Guanethidine ; melatonin ; pineal ; rat ; ribbons ; sympathectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chemical sympathectomy is widely used to study the impact of the noradrenergic system on neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits. We tested the effects of intraperitoneal injections of guanethidine, an adrenergic neuron blocking agent, on selected functional parameters of the rat pineal gland which are known to be under sympathetic influence. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by the clear enophthalmus developed by experimental animals. However, neither the numbers of ‘synaptic’ ribbons nor melatonin synthesis differed between treated and control rats, both parameters exhibiting the nocturnal increase seen in intact animals. These results are in striking contrast to those obtained upon chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine or surgical superior cervical ganglionectomy. We conclude that guanethidine is not capable of sufficiently removing noradrenergic influence from the rat pineal gland, and that this substance is thus inferior to other experimental methods of sympathectomy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Clorgyline ; melatonin ; monoamine oxidase ; rat ; sympathectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The response to administration of the specific monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) blocker clorgyline was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which were sympathectomized by injection of the false neurotransmitter 6-hydroxydopamine as newborns. In intact animals which served as controls, the contents of pineal indoles melatonin, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan were augmented, and the content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid decreased 90 min following clorgyline injections when compared to saline receiving rats. Sympathectomized animals exhibited similar responses but these were less pronounced. It is suggested that blocking of the oxidation of both MAO-A substrates, noradrenaline and serotonin, upon clorgyline administration results in the observed increase in melatonin synthesis which is thought to contribute to the antidepressant effects of MAO inhibition.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 150 (1991), S. 323-328 
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The contribution of Ca2+-activated K+ channels to hyperpolarizing after-potentials (HAP) of action potentials, to spike-frequency adaptation and thus to the shaping of discharge pattern, was examined in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurosecretory cells. In addition, the expression of BK channels and SK3 subunits of SK channels was studied using double immunofluorescence detection. The presence of BK channels and SK3 subunits was detected in many supraoptic neurones containing either vasopressin or oxytocin. Current-clamp recordings of current-induced spike trains revealed that HAPs comprise a fast and a slow HAP (fHAP and sHAP). Correlation analyses revealed that the increase of the fHAP in amplitude and spike broadening were correlated to a moderate gradual increase of the interspike interval and thus to weak spike-frequency adaptation. By contrast, marked prolongation of the interspike interval and strong spike-frequency adaptation depended on the appearance and on the amplitude of the sHAP. The sHAP and spike-frequency adaptation were blocked by cadmium, as well as by the SK channel antagonist apamin. The fHAP was attenuated by the BK channel antagonist iberiotoxin (IbTX), by the BK/IK channel antagonist charybdotoxin (ChTX) and by apamin. ChTX attenuated fHAPs throughout the entire spike train. By contrast, the IbTX-induced attenuation of the fHAP was restricted to the initial part of the spike train, while the apamin-induced attenuation slowly increased with the progression of the spike train. These results suggest that strong spike-frequency adaptation in supraoptic neurones essentially depends on the generation of the sHAP by activation of SK channels. Comparison of effects of IbTX, ChTX and apamin suggests a complementary contribution of SK-, BK- and IK-channels to fHAPs.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0531-5565
    Keywords: aging ; pineal gland ; rat ; sympathetic innervation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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