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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Bronchus gland ; Inflammation ; Fibrosis ; Atrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A study of 161 Los Angeles County residents aged 12–28 years old who had died sudden violent deaths showed frequent and severe chronic glandular bronchitis (CGB), that is to say grade ≥5 (0–10) chronic inflammation involving at least one, half or more, and all submucosal glands in 53.4%, 21%, and 4.4% of the main stem bronchi, respectively. The mean plasma cell/gland/bronchus was high (≥5) for 22 subjects (13.7%), while only 2 bronchi (1.2%) had a correspondingly high lymphocyte mean (P〈0.001). Of the bronchi, 75.2% were affected by glandular atrophy (≥5 in 8.1%), 10.6% had neutrophil infiltration of glands, and 3.1% had acute sialadenitis. Of the total of 1040 glands, CGB was found in 83.8% (≥5 in 26.5%). Of 25 non-smokers identified, 14 (56%) had some degree of CGB in ≥50% of the glands, severe in 7 (26%). Severe CGB in many young individuals raises concern that a subpopulation of living cohorts may have an increased susceptibility to disease and a rising incidence of chronic lung disease. Demographic analysis is pending, but respiratory infection, smoking, adverse socioeconomic factors, and air pollution are all potential causative factors. Since pollution in Los Angeles frequently exceeds air quality standards, an ongoing multicity study is attempting to distinguish between the suspected effects of air pollution and confounding variables.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: adhesion ; breast cancer ; disintegrin ; integrins ; invasion ; metastasis ; angiogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report the results of a multidisciplinary study on the inhibitory effect of a snake venom disintegrin, contortrostatin, a 13.5 kDa homodimeric protein isolated from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead) venom, on breast cancer progression. We demonstrate that contortrostatin binds to integrins and blocks the adhesion of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-435) to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin and vitronectin, but it has no effect on adhesion of the cells to laminin and Matrigel. Contortrostatin also prevents invasion of MDA-MB-435 cells through an artificial Matrigel basement membrane. Daily local injection of contortrostatin (5 μg per mouse per day) into MDA-MB-435 tumor masses in an orthotopic xenograft nude mouse model inhibits growth of the tumor by 74% (p = 0.0164). More importantly, it reduces the number of pulmonary macro-metastasis of the breast cancer by 68% (p 〈 0.001), and micro-metastasis by 62.4% (p 〈 0.001). Contortrostatin is not cytotoxic to cancer cells, and does not inhibit proliferation of the breast cancer cells in vitro. However, contortrostatin inhibits angiogenesis induced by the breast cancer, as shown by immunohistochemical quantitation of the vascular endothelial cells in tumor tissue removed from the nude mice. We have identified αvβ3, an important integrin mediating cell motility and tumor invasion, as one of the binding sites of contortrostatin on MDA-MB-435 cells. We conclude that contortrostatin blocks αvβ3, and perhaps other integrins, and thus inhibits in vivo progression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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