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  • 1
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; METAANALYSIS ; LOCUS
    Abstract: The presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.64; P = 5.7 x 10(-6)], rs791587 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 6.2 x 10(-5)), rs2476491 (HR, = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P = 5.6 x 10(-5)), and rs10795763 (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 7.9 x 10(-5)), and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.82; P = 9.3 x 10(-5)) after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs seem to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24764580
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted. METHODS: We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26319099
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  • 3
    Keywords: RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; statistics ; inflammation ; CARD11 ; FAMILY MEMBERS ; BCL10
    Abstract: Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that affect prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-kappaB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance, P 〈 2.5 x 10(-5)). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC [HR, 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-2.35; P = 4.13 x 10(-6)] and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B (TNFRSF13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.82; P = 2.33 x 10(-5)). Other associations of note included TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92; P = 6.49 x 10(-5)) and phospholipase C, gamma 1 (PLCG1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.73; P = 4.56 x 10(-4)). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24740199
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; POPULATION ; ACTIVATION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ; REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; PELVIC-INFLAMMATORY-DISEASE
    Abstract: A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561). Although the exact mechanism through which this SNP alters risk of ovarian cancer is not clearly understood, rs17561 has also been associated with risk of endometriosis, an epidemiologic risk factor for ovarian cancer. Interleukin-1alpha (IL1A) is both regulated by and able to activate NF-kappaB, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of many proinflammatory genes and may be an important mediator in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in more than 200 genes in the NF-kappaB pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high-grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell, and 1,016 low-grade serous, including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer [OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.93; P = 0.00075], which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = 0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of P 〈 2.5 x 10(-5), only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential tumors OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91; P = 0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation-related risk factors is warranted.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24272484
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