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  • 1
    Abstract: Loss of TFAP2C in mouse leads to developmental defects in the extra-embryonic compartment with lethality at embryonic day (E)7.5. To investigate the requirement of TFAP2C in later placental development, deletion of TFAP2C was induced throughout extra-embryonic ectoderm at E6.5, leading to severe placental abnormalities caused by reduced trophoblast population and resulting in embryonic retardation by E8.5. Deletion of TFAP2C in TPBPA(+) progenitors at E8.5 results in growth arrest of the junctional zone. TFAP2C regulates its target genes Cdkn1a (previously p21) and Dusp6, which are involved in repression of MAPK signaling. Loss of TFAP2C reduces activation of ERK1/2 in the placenta. Downregulation of Akt1 and reduced activation of phosphorylated AKT in the mutant placenta are accompanied by impaired glycogen synthesis. Loss of TFAP2C led to upregulation of imprinted gene H19 and downregulation of Slc38a4 and Ascl2. The placental insufficiency post E16.5 causes fetal growth restriction, with 19% lighter mutant pups. Knockdown of TFAP2C in human trophoblast choriocarcinoma JAr cells inhibited MAPK and AKT signaling. Thus, we present a model where TFAP2C in trophoblasts controls proliferation by repressing Cdkn1a and activating the MAPK pathway, further supporting differentiation of glycogen cells by activating the AKT pathway.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26811378
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-28
    Description: Intermittent intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure represents an important aetiological factor in the development of malignant melanoma. The ability of UV radiation to cause tumour-initiating DNA mutations in melanocytes is now firmly established, but how the microenvironmental effects of UV radiation influence melanoma pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here we report that repetitive UV exposure of primary cutaneous melanomas in a genetically engineered mouse model promotes metastatic progression, independent of its tumour-initiating effects. UV irradiation enhanced the expansion of tumour cells along abluminal blood vessel surfaces and increased the number of lung metastases. This effect depended on the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, initiated by the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from UV-damaged epidermal keratinocytes and driven by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The UV-induced neutrophilic inflammatory response stimulated angiogenesis and promoted the ability of melanoma cells to migrate towards endothelial cells and use selective motility cues on their surfaces. Our results not only reveal how UV irradiation of epidermal keratinocytes is sensed by the innate immune system, but also show that the resulting inflammatory response catalyses reciprocal melanoma-endothelial cell interactions leading to perivascular invasion, a phenomenon originally described as angiotropism in human melanomas by histopathologists. Angiotropism represents a hitherto underappreciated mechanism of metastasis that also increases the likelihood of intravasation and haematogenous dissemination. Consistent with our findings, ulcerated primary human melanomas with abundant neutrophils and reactive angiogenesis frequently show angiotropism and a high risk for metastases. Our work indicates that targeting the inflammation-induced phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells and their association with endothelial cells represent rational strategies to specifically interfere with metastatic progression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bald, Tobias -- Quast, Thomas -- Landsberg, Jennifer -- Rogava, Meri -- Glodde, Nicole -- Lopez-Ramos, Dorys -- Kohlmeyer, Judith -- Riesenberg, Stefanie -- van den Boorn-Konijnenberg, Debby -- Homig-Holzel, Cornelia -- Reuten, Raphael -- Schadow, Benjamin -- Weighardt, Heike -- Wenzel, Daniela -- Helfrich, Iris -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Bloch, Wilhelm -- Bianchi, Marco E -- Lugassy, Claire -- Barnhill, Raymond L -- Koch, Manuel -- Fleischmann, Bernd K -- Forster, Irmgard -- Kastenmuller, Wolfgang -- Kolanus, Waldemar -- Holzel, Michael -- Gaffal, Evelyn -- Tuting, Thomas -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 6;507(7490):109-13. doi: 10.1038/nature13111. Epub 2014 Feb 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Experimental Dermatology, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany. ; Molecular Immunology and Cell Biology, Life and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany. ; Unit for RNA Biology, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany. ; Institute for Dental Research and Oral Musculoskeletal Biology, Center for Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Immunology and Environment, Life and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany. ; Institute for Physiology I, Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany. ; Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany. ; Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele University and Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Institutes of Molecular Medicine and Experimental Immunology, University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Movement/radiation effects ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/radiation effects ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Progression ; Female ; HMGB1 Protein/metabolism ; Immunity, Innate/radiation effects ; Inflammation/*etiology ; Keratinocytes/metabolism/pathology/radiation effects ; Lung Neoplasms/blood supply/etiology/*secondary ; Male ; Melanocytes/pathology/radiation effects ; Melanoma/*blood supply/etiology/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/etiology ; Neutrophils/immunology/metabolism ; Skin Neoplasms/blood supply/etiology/*pathology ; Sunburn/complications/*etiology ; Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism ; *Ultraviolet Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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