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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Superoxide dismutase ; Glutathione peroxidase ; Leucocytes ; Inflammation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Superoxid-Dismutase (SOD) und Gluthathion-Peroxidase (GPX) schützen den aeroben Organismus vor den toxischen Sauerstoffmetaboliten Superoxid-Radical und Wasserstoffsuperoxid, die von Granulocyten während der Phagocytose gebildet werden. Granulocyten von Kindern mit bakteriellen Infekten oder infektiöser Hepatitis enthielten signifikant erhöhte SOD-Aktivitäten, während die GPX-Aktivitäten im normalen Bereich blieben. Im Gegensatz dazu führten virale Infekte oder rheumatoide Arthritiden in kindlichen Granulocyten zu einer verringerten SOD-Aktivität, veränderten jedoch auch in diesen Fällen nicht die GPX-Aktivität. Weder Alter noch Geschlecht oder Therapie der Kinder beeinflußten die Enzymaktivitäten in den Granulocyten. Da SOD das bakterizide Wasserstoffsuperoxid bildet und die Abgabe des toxischen Superoxid-Radicals in das umgebende Gewebe reguliert, stellen die Ergebnisse neue Aspekte zum pathophysiologischen Verständnis akuter und chronischer Entzündungsprozesse dar.
    Notes: Abstract Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) protect aerobic organisms against the toxic superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which are generated during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). PMNs of children with bacterial infections and with infectious hepatitis contained significantly elevated SOD activity, whereas GPX activity remained in the normal range. In contrast, PMNs of children with viral infections and rheumatoid arthritis exhibited a decreased SOD activity, while GPX activity was again unchanged. The children's age, sex or treatment did not effect the enzyme activities in PMNs. Since SOD generates bactericidal hydrogen peroxide and regulates the release of the toxic superoxide radical into the surrounding tissues, this study may add new understanding to the pathophysiological aspects of acute and chronic inflammatory processes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood ; CALLA-positive lymphocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In 1986 and 1987 11 children with TEC (transient erythroblastopenia of childhood) were referred to our hospital. Bone marrow aspirations were performed to exclude haematological malignancy. There was a marked reduction of erythropoiesis in 9 cases (1%–8%), two children had already recovered (33% and 44% erythropoiesis). Eight patients exhibited high percentages of stimulated lymphoid cells. The subsequent immunotyping revealed the expression of CALLA (common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen) on these cells but there was no other sign for malignancy. The patients recovered without any specific treatment except transfusions of packed red cells. Eight patients were followed up 11–18 months after initial presentation and were all found to be in good health. A prominent increase of CALLA-positive stimulated lymphoid cells has also been found in other haematological diseases such as neutropenia and immune thrombocytopenia. The expression of CALLA in bone marrow lymphocytes is a general reactive change to various alterations.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 135 (1980), S. 153-160 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Leukocytes ; Cytoskeleton ; Microtubules ; Cap formation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Various polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) functions are dependent on an intact intracellular cytoskeleton consisting of the microtubules and the microfilaments. To investigate the microtubule system in PMNs we observed the spontaneous, Colchicine and Diamide induced cap-formation by fluorescence microscopy in PMNs obtained from children with bacterial and viral infections, bronchial asthma, as well as during immunosuppressive therapy. Children with bacterial infections demonstrated with 47±1% a significantly increased number of spontaneous capped PMNs compared to 22±1% capped cells obtained from controls. Furthermore, 52±2% PMNs of children with bronchial asthma as well as 51±2% PMNs of patients on immunosuppressive therapy exhibited spontaneous surface capping. There was no significant elevation in the number of capped PMNs (30±2%) obtained from children with viral infections. Colchicine and Diamide increased the number of capped cells in control PMNs as well as in PMNs from patients to 69±1% and 67±1%, respectively. Since the increased spontaneous cap formation in PMNs is associated with a defect of microtubule assembly, the various leukocyte function defects described in patients with bacterial infections, bronchial asthma or on immunosuppressive therapy may have to be considered the consequence of an altered microtubule system.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Reduced glutathione (GSH) ; Alveolar macrophages ; Polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; Oxygen toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Reduced glutathione (GSH) protects alveolar macrophages (AMs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against oxidative damage. To obtain further knowledge of the oxygen toxicity we determined GSH in AMs and PMNs of guinea pigs exposed to an oxygen concentration of 85% for up to 90 h. AMs and PMNs from control animals contained 17.93 and 11.67 nmol GSH/mg protein, respectively. During the exposure to a FIO2 of 85% we observed a significant continuous increase of GSH in AMs. By 90 h of oxygen exposure, AMs contained 51.22 nmol GSH/mg protein. In addition, the protein content of AMs decreased during hyperoxia. In contrast, no change of the GSH amount and protein content was detectable in PMNs. The increase of GSH in AMs could serve as an adaptation of the cells to hyperoxia. The lack of the GSH increase in PMNs could be due to the different oxygen concentrations between the lung and the peritoneal cavity. The greater GSH content in AMs may account for the difference between these cells in their susceptibility to oxidant injury.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular medicine 63 (1985), S. 540-544 
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; Degranulation ; β-Glucuronidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The release of β-glucuronidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) is important in the killing of bacteria and in producing tissue damage in acute inflammation. To investigate the effects of various diseases or drugs on degranulation, we studied the kinetics of β-glucuronidase release from PMNs exposed to opsonized zymosan. PMNs of children with bacterial infections demonstrated increased degranulation. Within 5, 15, and 30 min the PMNs released 19±3%, 23±3%, and 26±3% of total β-glucuronidase compared to 12±2%, 15±2%, and 16±2% of total β-glucuronidase of control PMNs. Viral infections induced a significant delay of β-glucuronidase release from PMNs. Maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate, as well as administration of vincristine, diminished the degranulation. After 5, 15, and 30 min the PMNs released 8±1%, 10±1%, and 11±1%, as well as 6±3%, 8±2%, and 9±2% of total β-glucuronidase. This study demonstrated that bacterial infections stimulate β-glucuronidase release by PMNs. In contrast, cytostatic drugs inhibit lysosomal enzyme release, increasing the susceptibility to bacterial infections. The total enzyme activities were unchanged.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pediatric radiology 14 (1984), S. 267-271 
    ISSN: 1432-1998
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare disease in pediatric patients. The case of a 14-year-old girl with generalized WG is described and the pediatric literature reviewed. Thirty additional cases of WG in childhood have been traced in previous studies. Diagnostic problems are discussed in the context of clinical, radiological and biopsy findings.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis ; Granulocytes ; Superoxide dismutase ; Superoxide anion ; Rheumatische Arthritis ; Granulozyten ; Superoxid-Dismutase ; Superoxid-Radikal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Granulozyten bilden während der Phagozytose das toxische Superoxid-Radikal (O 2 − ). Das kupferhaltige Enzym Superoxid Dismutase schützt intrazellulär vor der toxischen Wirkung des O 2 − . Um die Rolle von O 2 − und SOD im Rahmen der rheumatoiden Erkrankung zu untersuchen, wurde die O 2 − -Bildung von Granulozyten und deren SOD-Aktivität bestimmt. Die SOD-Aktivität war im Vergleich mit Gesunden in Granulozyten von Kindern mit rheumatischen Erkrankungen deutlich erniedrigt. Nach Stimulation mit opsoniertem Zymosan bildeten die Granulozyten von Kindern mit rheumatischen Erkrankungen mehr O 2 − als Kontrollzellen. Der SOD-Mangel in Granulozyten von Kindern mit rheumatischen Erkrankungen begünstigt möglicherweise das vermehrte Auftreten toxischer Sauerstoffmetabolite im extrazellulären Raum, die eine rheumatische Gewebsschädigung verursachen können. Die Bedeutung der Superoxid-Dismutase und Superoxid-Radikal-Freisetzung im Rahmen rheumatischer Entzündungen sollte nicht nur zum Verständnis des Entzündungsgeschehens beitragen, sondern auch neue therapeutische Prinzipien unterstützen.
    Notes: Summary Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) release superoxide anion (O 2 − ) when they are exposed to a phagocytic stimulus. Intracellulary the copper-containing enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) protects against the toxic effects of O 2 − . To investigate the role of O 2 − and SOD in the inflammatory process we determined the O 2 − -release and SOD content in PMNs. In PMNs of children with rheumatoid arthritis the SOD activity was diminished compared to healthy controls. Upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan PMNs obtained from children with rheumatoid arthritis generated greater amounts of superoxide anion than control cells. The “SOD deficiency” in PMNs of children with rheumatoid arthritis may promote this extreme release of the toxic superoxid radical inducing the damage of the connective tissue. The involvement of superoxide dismutase and superoxide anion in inflammatory process may induce further studies, leading hopefully to an appropriate understanding or even to new principles in the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annals of hematology 41 (1980), S. 257-267 
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Phagocytosis ; Alveolar macrophages ; Granulocytes ; Phagozytose ; alveoläre Makrophagen ; Granulozyten
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Alveoläre Makrophagen und Granulozyten müssen innerhalb einer Spezies unter verschiedenen Bedingungen den Organismus gegen eindringende Bakterien schützen. Um den Einfluß des umgebenden Gewebes auf die einzelnen Phasen der Phagozytose zu untersuchen, wurden Adhärenz, Chemotaxis, Ingestionsrate, Degranulierung und intrazelluläre bakterienabtötende Kapazität von alveolären Makrophagen und Granulozyten des Meerschweinchens untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde mittels des Fluoreszenzmusters von Concanavalin A-Rezeptoren das Zellskelett beider Zelltypen beurteilt. Dabei konnten deutliche funktionelle Unterschiede aufgezeigt werden. Während die Adhärenz beider Zellarten vergleichbar war, wiesen die Granulozyten eine wesentlich höhere chemotaktische Aktivität und Ingestionsrate als alveoläre Makrophagen auf. Bei der Degranulierung kam es jedoch in alveolären Makrophagen zu einer nahezu vollständigen Sekretion des Granulaenzymsβ-Glukuronidase. Trotzdem ist die bakterientötende Kapazität der alveolären Makrophagen geringer als die der Granulozyten. Die Ursache dieser funktionellen Unterschiede kann nicht Folge einer Zellskelettalteration sein. Das gleichmäßige Fluoreszenzmuster der Lektinrezeptoren in 72% alveolären Makrophagen und 73% Granulozyten wies auf ein intaktes Zellskelett hin, wobei das Mikrotubulussystem ausreichend polymerisiert ist. Nur bei 12% alveolären Makrophagen und 11% Granulozyten lag mit dem kappenförmigen Fluoreszenzmuster der Concanavalin A-Rezeptoren ein gestörtes Mikrotubulussystem vor. Daher muß der Unterschied in der Adhärenz, Chemotaxis, Ingestionsrate und Bakterizidie als zellspezifische Eigenschaft beider Zelltypen angesehen werden.
    Notes: Summary Alveolar macrophages and granulocytes protect the organism against invaded microorganisms under various conditions. To investigate whether the environmental difference may influence the various phagocytic functions the adherence, chemotaxis, ingestion rate, degranulation as well as the bactericidal activity were determined in alveolar macrophages and granulocytes obtained from guinea pigs. In addition, the cytoskeleton was examined by observing the fluorescence of Concanavalin A receptors. Various functional differences between both cell types have been demonstrated. Both cell types exhibited the same adherence. In contrast, granulocytes demonstrated a greater chemotactic activity and ingestion rate than alveolar macrophages. Following the exposure to opsonized zymosan alveolar macrophages secreted almost totally the lysosomal enzymeβ-glucuronidase during the degranulation. Nevertheless, alveolar macrophages exhibited a lower bactericidal activity than granulocytes. This functional differences were not caused by an alteration of the cytoskeleton. A random fluorescence distribution of FITC-Concanavalin A receptors was observed in 72% alveolar macrophages and 73% granulocytes, demonstrating polymerisation of the microtubuli. Only 12% alveolar macrophages and 11% granulocytes showed a capped FITC-Concanavalin A fluorescence which is associated with an alteration of the microtubuli. This study demonstrates that the difference in adherence, chemotaxis. ingestion rate, as well as the bactericidal activity of alveolar macrophages and granulocytes is a specific cell-type property.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Annals of hematology 45 (1982), S. 157-166 
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Phagocytosis ; Alveolar macrophages ; Polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; Oxygen toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of bacterial infections is a common complication during treatment with high concentrations of oxygen. To study the effect of hyperoxia on phagocytes, the adherence, chemotaxis, ingestion rates, degranulation as well as the bactericidal activity were measured in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) obtained from guinea pigs exposed to 85% oxygen. The animal exposure to a Fi O2 of 85% impaired the adherence to nylon-wool, the chemotactic activity and the phagocytic rate of paraffinoil-droplets of AMs and PMNs. In AMs the secretion of β-glucuronidase upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan was also diminished. In addition, the bactericidal activity of AMs and PMNs demonstrated a reduction of 50%. These phagocytic defects may be caused by a cytoskeleton alteration, induced by the increase of oxygen derived metabolites, representing an additional sepsis promoting factor during hyperoxia.
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