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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report here on the detailed distribution of VIP-like immuno-reactivity in the rat brain by a combined immunological approach using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. VIP-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed. Cell bodies and fibres were noted principally in the cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, suprachiasmatic nucleus and brain stem. In addition dense areas of immunoreactive fibres and terminals were seen in the stria terminalis and its bed nucleus. The fibres appear to form a major VIP-containing pathway which links the amygdaloid complex with the hypothalamus. Although the functional significance of VIP in the brain is unknown, its presence in the amygdala, the hypothalamus and their linking pathway, as well as its pharmacological actions suggest that is may play a role in neuroendocrine regulation and the modulation of hypothalamic function.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Extracellular amyloid deposits are a feature of both Alzheimer type dementia and the ‘normal’ aging process. Quantification of amyloid plaque deposits may well be useful in distinguishing between the senescent changes associated with ‘normal’ aging and the pathological processes underlying dementia. To determine the most reliable and reproducible method for visualisation of the amyloid we have compared conventional silver staining techniques with β-amyloid immunocytochemistry on a large sample of post-mortem brain tissue from both demented (n=15, age range 60–87) and non-demented (n=65, age range 14–99) patients. The degree of amyloid deposition was rated on a four point scale and ratings for the two techniques were significantly correlated (P〈0.01). However, the immunocytochemical approach has a number of distinct advantages for quantification. The antibody to β-amyloid is highly specific and does not stain neurofibrillary tangles or background features, it is considerably more sensitive than silver staining in highlighting diffuse amyloid deposits and, perhaps most importantly, it produces high contrast staining which allows easier image digitisation and subsequent computer image analysis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with 35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Amygdala ; Immunohistochemistry ; Schizophrenia ; Huntington's chorea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location of the neuropeptides methionine-enkephalin (ME), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the amygdaloid complex of healthy human individuals, schizophrenics and patients suffering from Huntington's chorea was studied qualitatively by means of immunohistochemistry. VIP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was present predominantly in a dense cluster of fibers and terminals in the central amygdaloid nucleus. ME-IR was observed in fibers, terminals and cell bodies in the same subnucleus, exhibiting a characteristical distribution pattern. NT-positive cell bodies were situated within the center of the central amygdaloid nucleus, fibers and terminals being encountered mainly at the periphery. NPY-IR was found to be evenly distributed throughout the amygdala. Distribution and staining intensity of ME, NPY and NT in the amygdala showed no qualitatively recognizable difference between the normal and schizophrenic specimens, whereas VIP-IR appeared to be slightly increased in the central amygdaloid nucleus of schizophrenics. In the choreic cases, the considerably shrunken amygdala exhibited only very low staining intensity of the four investigated neuropeptides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words β-Amyloid precursor protein ; Head injury ; Diffuse axonal injury ; Immunocytochemistry ; Diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract β-Amyloid precursor protein immunostaining has recently been shown to be a reliable method for detecting the damage to axons associated with fatal head injury. In an attempt to compare the efficacy of this technique with conventional histological detection of axonal damage, we have reanalysed sections from a large well-characterised series of head-injured and control patients. The results indicate that the frequency of axonal injury has been vastly underestimated using conventional silver techniques, and that axonal injury may in fact be an almost universal consequence of fatal head injury.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: β-Amyloid precursor protein ; Head injury ; Diffuse axonal injury ; Immunocytochemistry ; Diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract β-Amyloid precursor protein immunostaining has recently been shown to be a reliable method for detecting the damage to axons associated with fatal head injury. In an attempt to compare the efficacy of this technique with conventional histological detection of axonal damage, we have reanalysed sections from a large well-characterised series of head-injured and control patients. The results indicate that the frequency of axonal injury has been vastly underestimated using conventional silver techniques, and that axonal injury may in fact be an almost universal consequence of fatal head injury.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human brains were obtained at postmortem from patients without history of neurological or psychiatric disease. The brains were immediately microdissected and then stored at -70 °C until extracted in boiling 0.5 M acetic acid (10ml per g wet weight tissue) for 15min. Material for ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 314 (1985), S. 92-94 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Brains were obtained postmortem from six controls (4 males, 2 females, mean age 76 yr, range 58-87 yr) and 15 clinically and neuropathologically defined cases of Alzheimer's (5 male, 10 female, mean age 77 yr, range 57-91 yr). Brains were fixed routinely in 4% formalin and blocks of tissue which ...
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  • 10
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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