Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary While Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides have been successfully hybridized, attempts at further direct gene introgression have been unsuccessful due to the presence of incompatibility barriers. A systematic study of the initial hybridization and subsequent backcrosses has identified multiple barriers to introgression. These barriers are expressed as pollen tube inhibition in the upper style and lower pistil, and failures in syngamy, zygote development, and sporogenesis. Upper style cross-incompatibility barriers were successfully avoided by bud pollinations using a stigma complementation procedure to allow pollen germination on otherwise unreceptive stigmas. The inhibition of pollen tube growth was observed in the lower pistil. A combination of environmental, plant, and genetic manipulations facilitated consistent pollen tube growth to the ovule micropyles in all crosses attempted. Failures at syngamy and early zygote formation proved to be the most difficult barriers to overcome — these were particularly severe in crosses to F1 hybrid plants. Progeny were obtained in all crossing combinations attempted except in the initial hybridization with S. lycopersicoides as the pistillate parent. Although the strong pre-zygotic barriers were overcome in this cross, further progress was restricted by post-zygotic failures. The capability to overcome pre-zygotic barriers and to excise and culture very young embryos has allowed plantlet recovery from male sterile F1 plants. Partially pollen-fertile F1 plants were recovered when relatively large F1 populations were generated from different S. lycopersicoides accessions. In general, barriers to introgression diminished with increased backcrossing, though exceptions were noted. Progeny from the second backcross to L. esculentum possessed adequate fertility to set self-seed under field conditions. Although all backcross progeny were developed from only a few F1 individuals, considerable genetic variability was recovered for fruit and vegetative characteristics. Potentially useful levels of disease resistance, particularly to Botrytis cinerea, were also recovered.
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