Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes form the first line of defense against free radicals in organisms. Their regulation depends mainly on the oxidant status of the cell, given that oxidants are their principal modulators. However, other factors have been reported to increase antioxidant enzyme activity and/or gene expression. During the last decade, the antioxidant melatonin has been shown to possess genomic actions, regulating the expression of several genes. Melatonin also influences both antioxidant enzyme activity and cellular mRNA levels for these enzymes. In the present report, we review the studies which document the influence of melatonin on the activity and expression of the antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutases and catalase both under physiological and under conditions of elevated oxidative stress. We also analyze the possible mechanisms by which melatonin regulates these enzymes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Recently, melatonin was found to be the most potent physiological free radical scavenger known to date. In this work, we attempted to define the role this neurohormone plays in the regulation of apoptosis, since the effect of bcl-2, the main gene implicated in its inhibition, acts via an antioxidant mechanism. We investigated the role of melatonin in cell death of thymus, a well known model for the study of apoptosis. Two sets of experiments were carried out: in vivo experiments, performed with Wistar rats, and in vitro experiments, performed with primary cultures of young Wistar rat thymocytes treated with glucocorticoids in order to induce apoptosis. Morphometrical studies in semithin sections of thymus and analysis of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis show that physiological apoptosis occurring in thymus of 65 days old rats, is prevented by the daily administration of melatonin beginning when the rats were 25 days old. Also, we found that at a concentration of 10−7 M, melatonin decreases by 35% the percentage of apoptotic cells induced by glucocorticoids in cultured thymocytes of 25 day old rats. 10−9 M melatonin decreases cell death by 20%. Finally, melatonin at 10−11 Mdid not have any effect. Several hypothesis are discussed to explain this effect: direct interaction of melatonin with glucocorticoid receptors in the thymus; induction of interleukin-4 release; direct genomic action modulating the expression of apoptosis-inhibiting genes; an effect on nitric oxide synthase; and finally, the antioxidant action of melatonin. Since apoptosis is a possible mechanism involved in neuronal death shown in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson or Alzheimer's diseases, investigative efforts should be directed to the possible role of melatonin in inhibiting cell death in tissues other that the thymus. Melatonin might be a potent therapeutic agent in some of these conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Day and nighttime melatonin production in the pineal gland was compared in normal and cardiomyopathic (polydystrophic) adult male Syrian hamsters. These strains of hamsters were selected for comparison because the cardiomyopathetic hamster displays a deficient transmembrane Ca2+-pump in a number of tissues, and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) play a central role in the nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin synthesis. Daytime levels of all constituents measured, i.e., pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, pineal and serum melatonin levels, and pineal 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents, were comparable in control and dystrophic hamsters. In contrast, the nighttime rises in pineal NAT activity and pineal and serum melatonin levels were significantly attenuated in the dystrophic hamsters. By comparison, the pineal contents of 5-HTP, serotonin, and 5-HIAA were essentially the same in both groups of hamsters with both pineal serotonin and 5-HIAA values exhibiting the usual nighttime drop. It is presumed that the alterations in nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal gland of the cardiomyopathic hamster may relate to a generalized deficiency in the Ca2+-pump in pinealocyte plasma membranes, which leads to unusually high [Ca2+]i, causing a depression of NAT activity; this leads to the commensurate decline in pineal and serum melatonin levels. Harderian gland NAT activity and melatonin levels were essentially similar in the two groups of animals, although NAT activity was slightly depressed in the dystrophic hamsters killed during the day. The reduced amounts of intrascapular brown fat in the cardiomyopathic hamster is speculated to be a result of the diminished amount of melatonin produced in these animals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neuroprotection provided by melatonin has been shown to be more relevant in vivo than in neuronal cultures. Given the role of astrocytes in neuronal support and protection, studies were initiated to elucidate the possible protective effect of the antioxidant melatonin against oxidative stress in these cells. Both low and high concentrations of melatonin were able to protect astrocytes with even higher efficiency than the known antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The mechanisms involved may be different for high (1 mm) and low (100 nm) concentrations of the indole. The GSH cycling appeared not to be involved in the protection at high doses. High doses of melatonin neither influenced GSH levels nor gene expression for the several antioxidant enzymes studied; thus, melatonin's protective effect was likely because of its free radical scavenging action in this case. However, melatonin concentrations in the nanomolar range require the presence of GSH to be effective. No increase in GSH synthesis was found, but low doses of melatonin increased gene expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase. As this enzyme requires GSH as substrate to be active, this may be the reason why the effect of this melatonin concentration is GSH dependent. In vivo, melatonin levels exhibit a wide range of concentrations with much lower levels in the blood and significantly higher concentrations in other body fluids and within cells. Thus, melatonin may normally function as an indirect and direct antioxidant in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Recently, common variants on human chromosome 8q24 were found to be associated with prostate cancer risk. While conducting a genome-wide association study in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project with 550,000 SNPs in a nested case-control study (1,172 cases and 1,157 controls of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glutamate is responsible for most of the excitatory synaptic activity and oxidative stress induction in the mammalian brain. This amino acid is increased in the substantia nigra in parkinsonism due to the lack of dopamine restraint to the subthalamic nucleus. Parkinson's disease also shows an increase of iron levels in the substantia nigra and a decrease of glutathione, the antioxidant responsible for the ascorbate radical recycling. Considered together, these facts could make the antioxidant ascorbate behave as a pro-oxidant in parkinsonism. Since both glutamate and ascorbate are present in the synaptosomes and neurons of substantia nigra, we tested 1) if glutamate is able to induce oxidative stress independently of its excitatory activity, and 2) if ascorbate may have synergistic effects with glutamate when these two molecules co-exist. Brains were homogenized in order to disrupt membranes and render membrane receptors and intracellular signaling pathways non-functional. In these homogenates glutamate induced lipid peroxidation, indicating that this amino acid also may cause oxidative stress not mediated by its binding to glutamate receptors or cystine transporters. Ascorbate also induced lipid peroxidation thus behaving as a pro-oxidant. Both substances together produced an additive effect but they did not synergize. Given that melatonin is a potent physiological antioxidant with protective effects in models of neurotoxicity, we tested the role of this secretory product on the pro-oxidant effect of both compounds given separately or in combination. We also checked the protective ability of several other antioxidants. Pharmacological doses of melatonin (millimolar), estrogens, pinoline and trolox (micromolar) prevented the oxidant effect of glutamate, ascorbate, and the combination of both substances. Potential therapeutic application of these results is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: It was recently reported that low doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induce apoptosis of naive (undifferentiated) and neuronal (differentiated) PC 12 cells, and this system has been proposed as an adequate experimental model for the study of Parkinson's disease. The mechanism by which this neurotoxin damages cells is via the production of free radicals. Given that the neurohormone melatonin has been reported 1) to be a highly effective endogenous free radical scavenger, 2) to increase the mRNA levels and the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, and 3) to inhibit apoptosis in other tissues, we have studied the ability of melatonin to prevent the programmed cell death induced by 6-OHDA in PC12 cells. We found that melatonin prevents the apoptosis caused by 6-OHDA in naive and neuronal PC12 cells as estimated by 1) cell viability assays, 2) counting of the number of apoptotic cells, and 3) analysis and quantification of DNA fragmentation. Exploration of the mechanisms used by melatonin to reduce programmed cell death revealed that this chemical mediator prevents the 6-OHDA induced reduction of mRNAs for several antioxidant enzymes. The possibility that melatonin utilized additional mechanisms to prevent apoptosis of these cells is also discussed. Since this endogenous agent has no known side effects and readily crosses the blood-brain-barrier, we consider melatonin to have a high clinical potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases, although more research on the mechanisms is yet to be done.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Kotler M, Rodríguez C, Sáinz RM, Antolín I, Menéndez-Peláez A. Melatonin increases gene expression for antioxidant enzymes in rat brain cortex. J. Pineal Res. 1998; 24:83–89. © Munksgaard, Copenhagen〈section xml:id="abs1-1"〉〈title type="main"〉AbstractDuring the last years several reports have demonstrated that melatonin is a efficient free radical scavenger and general antioxidant. In addition, it has been shown that this neurohormone is able to increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase in rat brain cortex as well as the gene expression for some antioxidant enzymes in the Harderian gland of female Syrian hamster. Also, it is well known that brain cells are particularly exposed to free radicals, with antioxidant enzymes as the major defense mechanism that the brain uses to neutralize reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of melatonin on gene expression for antioxidant enzymes in rat brain cortex. Our results clearly demonstrate that exogenously administered melatonin increases the levels of mRNA for glutathione peroxidase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and manganese superoxide dismutase in this tissue. These stimulatory effects are observed after both acute and chronic treatment with this hormone, producing in the latter case the more marked increase. We therefore conclude that melatonin exerts an important role in providing indirect protection against free radical injury by stimulating gene expression for antioxidant enzymes. Consequently, melatonin could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in some age-related neurodegenerative diseases where excessive free radical production has been implicated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-079X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the influence of melatonin on the histology and porphyrin content of the Syrian hamster Harderian glands. Daily afternoon injections of 25 μg of melatonin to female hamsters for 12 weeks resulted in the discontinuity of estrous cyclicity, a marked decrease in the Harderian gland intraluminal area occupied by porphyrins, and in a significant rise in the number of Type II cells. A similar decrease in porphyrins was observed after 8 weeks of ovariectomy. However, if the melatonin injections were given for only 8 weeks (without inducing gonadal atrophy), no changes were observed in the area occupied by intraluminal porphyrins, suggesting that the effects of melatonin in female Syrian hamsters might be associated with the subsequent gonadal atrophy. Castration of male hamsters induced a significant increase in porphyrins and a clear drop in the number of Type II cells. These changes were totally prevented when melatonin was administered daily from the day of castration. Our results suggest that melatonin, at least in male Syrian hamsters, plays a role in Harderian metabolism, acting directly on the Handerian secretory cells or indirectly through pituitary hormones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...