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  • 1
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0022-1910
    Keywords: Insects ; Malpighian tubules ; X-ray microanalysis ; formica species ; haemolymph composition ; transepithelial potential ; urine formation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Water fluxes ; Na fluxes ; proximal tubule microperfusion ; Li substitution ; rat kidney
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The relationship between water and sodium movements through the mammalian proximal convoluted tubule was investigated by substituting lithium for sodium. Proximal convoluted rat Kidney tubules were perfusedin vivo with a Ringer solution containing 107 meq/liter lithium and 42 meq/liter sodium. Several micropunctures were made along the same nephron, and [3H] inulin, [14C] glucose,22Na, osmolality, Na, Mg and Cl were determined on each sample. Measurements of22Na showed that sodium and lithium diffusion rates were practically identical throughout the entire epithelium. A one- for-one exchange of sodium for lithium induced a negative trans-epithelial net flux of Na from plasma to lumen. However, despite this negative flux, a positive net water movement was measured from lumen to plasma. This movement was proportional both to glucose reabsorption and to the rise in the chloride concentration, two mechanisms known to be dependent on the trans-cellular movement of sodium. It was therefore concluded that the net water flux was a function of the unidirectional transcellular net flux of Na. Rabbit proximal convoluted tubules were perfusedin vitro with a solution containing 75 meq/liter Li and 75 meq/liter Na on both the luminal and peritubular sides. Under these conditions, the water reabsorption rate dropped to half its control value. Water movement was therefore a function of the external sodium concentration, which in turn probably regulates the intracellular Na concentration.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 62 (1992), S. 263-277 
    ISSN: 0047-6374
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Renal Tubule ; Phosphate Transport ; Sodium Dependence ; Micropuncture ; Microperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The standing droplet method has been used in combination with the peritubular perfusion of blood capillaries to determine the build up of transtubular concentration differences of phosphate (P i ) in the renal proximal convoluted tubule of parathyroidectomized rats. Electron probe analysis was used to estimate P i . At zero time both the intraluminal and the contraluminal P i concentration was 2 mM. The time dependent decrease of the intraluminal P i concentration was approximately 4 times faster in the early than in the late proximal convoluted tubule. After 45 sec an intraluminal steady state concentration of 0.20 mM P i was achieved in the early part. In the late part the intraluminal P i concentration approached a steady state value of 0.54 mM at 120 sec. When sodium free solutions were used the intraluminal P i concentration increased to 2.22 mM in the earlier and to 2.76 mM in the late part. The data indicate that in the proximal convoluted tubule 1. The rate of phosphate reabsorption is greater in the early part than in the later part, and 2. phosphate reabsorption might occur as co-transport with Na+ ions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: ADH ; Transepithelial ion net fluxes ; Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport ; Electron microprobe ; Mouse kidney ; Cortical and medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop ; In vitro microperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin, AVP) on transepithelial Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ net transports was investigated in medullary (mTAL) and cortical (cTAL) segments of the thick ascending limb (TAL) of mouse nephron, perfused in vitro. Transepithelial net fluxes (J Na +,J Cl −,J K +,J Ca 2+,J Mg 2+) were determined by electron probe analysis of the collected tubular fluid. Transepithelial potential difference (PDte) and transepithelial resistance (Rte) were measured simultaneously. cTAL segments were bathed and perfused with isoosmolal, HCO 3 − containing Ringer solutions, mTAL segments were bathed and perfused with isoosmolal HCO 3 − free Ringer solutions. In cTAL segments, AVP (10−10 mol·l−1) significantly increasedJ Mg 2+ andJ Ca 2+ from 0.39±0.08 to 0.58±0.10 and from 0.86±0.13 to 1.19±0.15 pmol·min−1 mm−1 respectively. NeitherJ Na + norJ Cl −, (J Na +: 213±30 versus 221±28 pmol·min−1 mm−1,J Cl −: 206±30 versus 220±23 pmol·min−1 mm−1) nor PDte (13.4±1.3 mV versus 14.1±1.9 mV) or Rte (24.6±6.5Ω cm2 versus 22.6±6.4Ω cm2) were significantly changed by AVP. No significant effect of AVP on net K+ transport was observed. In mTAL segments, Mg2+ and Ca2+ net transports were close to zero and AVP (10−10 mol·l−1) elicited no effect. However NaCl net reabsorption was significantly stimulated by the hormone,J Na + increased from 107±33 to 148±30 andJ Cl − from 121±33 to 165±32 pmol·min−1 mm−1. The rise inJ NaCl was accompanied by an increase in PDte from 9.0±0.7 to 13.5±0.9 mV and a decrease in Rte from 14.4±2.0 to 11.2±1.7 Ω cm2. No K+ net transport was detected, either under control conditions or in the presence of AVP. To test for a possible effect of HCO 3 − on transepithelial ion fluxes, mTAL segments were bathed and perfused with HCO 3 − containing Ringer solutions. With the exception ofJ Ca 2+ which was significantly different from zero (J Ca 2+: 0.26±0.06 pmol·min−1 mm−1), net transepithelial fluxes of Na+, Cl−, K+ and Mg2+ were unaffected by HCO 3 − . In the presence of AVP,J Mg 2+ andJ Ca 2+ were unaltered whereasJ NaCl was stimulated to the same extent as observed in the absence of HCO 3 − . In conclusion our results indicate heterogeneity of response to AVP in cortical and medullary segments of the TAL segment, since AVP stimulates Ca2+ and Mg2+ reabsorption in the cortical part and Na+ and Cl− reabsorption in the medullary part of this nephron segment.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Isolated thick ascending limb ; Microperfusion ; Divalent cation and potassium transport ; Microprobe analysis ; Transepithelial voltage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Isolated segments of rat cortical (cTAL) and medullary (mTAL) thick ascending limbs were microperfused and the transepithelial net fluxes (Jx) were determined by measuring the composition of the collected fluid with an electron microprobe. When perfused with symmetrical solutions both segments showed similar JNa and jCl and lumen-positive transepithelial voltage (V te=7–8 mV). JMg, JCa and JK were not significantly different from zero. When perfused with asymmetrical solutions (lumen 50 mM, bath 150 mM NaCl), the mean Vte were 23 mV and 17 mV in the cTAL and mTAL respectively; this rise was accompanied by significant increases in JMg and JCa in the cTAL, but not in the mTAL, and a marked increase in JK in both segments. It is concluded that, in the rat, divalent cations can be reabsorbed in the cTAL, and K+ can be reabsorbed in the cTAL and mTAL. The transport is voltage-dependent. The mTAL can reabsorb neither Mg2+ nor Ca2+, whatever Vte.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Parathyroid hormone ; Human calcitonin ; Transepithelial ion net fluxes ; Na+, Cl−, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ transport ; Electron microprobe analysis-Mouse kidney ; In vitro microperfusion ; Cortical and medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on transepithelial Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport was investigated in isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limbs (cTAL) and that of human calcitonin (hCT) was tested in both cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs (mTAL) of the mouse nephron. The transepithelial ion net fluxes (J x) were determined by electron probe analysis of the perfused and collected fluids. Simultaneously, the transepithelial voltage (PDte) and resistance (R te) were recorded. In cTAL segments, PTH and hCT significantly stimulated the reabsorption of Na+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. hCT generated a net K+ secretion towards the lumen and PTH tended to exert the same effect. Neither PDte nor R te were significantly altered by either PTH or hCT. However, in the post-experimental period a significant decrease in PDte was noted. Time control experiments carried out under similar conditions revealed a significant decrease in PDte with time, which could have masked the hormonal response. In mTAL segments, Mg2+ and Ca2+ transport was close to zero. hCT did not exert any detectable effect on either PDte or J Cl −, J Na + J K +, J Mg 2+ and J Ca 2+ in these segments. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PTH and hCT stimulate NaCl reabsorption as well as Mg2+ and Ca2+ reabsorption in the cTAL segment of the mouse. These data are in agreement with and extend data obtained in vivo in the rat.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Ca2+ transport ; Mg2+ transport ; Electron microprobe analysis ; Cortical thick ascending limb ; Furosemide ; Parathyroid hormone ; Paracellular shunt pathway permeability ; Tight junctions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of the mouse (cTAL) Ca2+ and Mg2+ are reabsorbed passively, via the paracellular shunt pathway. In the present study, cellular mechanisms responsible for the hormone-stimulated Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport were investigated. Transepithelial voltages (PDte) and transepithelial ion net fluxes (J Na, J Cl, J K, J Ca, J Mg) were measured in isolated perfused mouse cTAL segments. Whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) is able to stimulate Ca2+ and Mg2+ reabsorption when active NaCl reabsorption, and thus PDte, is abolished by luminal furosemide was first tested. With symmetrical lumen and bath Ringer's solutions, no Ca2+ and Mg2+ net transport was detectable, either in the absence or in the presence of PTH. In the presence of luminal furosemide and a chemically imposed lumen-to-bath directed NaCl gradient, which generates a lumen-negative PDte, PTH slightly but significantly increased Ca2+ and Mg2+ net secretion. In the presence of luminal furosemide and a chemically imposed bath-to-lumen-directed NaCl gradient, which generates a lumen-positive PDte, PTH slightly but significantly increased Ca2+ and Mg2+ net reabsorption. In view of the observed small effect of PTH on passive Ca2+ and Mg2+ movement, a possible interference of furosemide with the hormonal response was considered. To investigate this possibility, Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport was first stimulated with PTH in tubules under control conditions. Then active NaCl reabsorption was abolished by furosemide and the effect of PTH on J Ca and J Mg measured. In the absence of PDte and under symmetrical conditions, no Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport was detectable, either in the presence or absence of PTH. In the presence of a bath-to-lumen-directed NaCl gradient, Ca2+ and Mg2+ reabsorption was significantly higher in the presence than in the absence of PTH. Finally, when active NaCl transport was not inhibited by furosemide, but reduced by a bath-to-lumen-directed NaCl gradient, PTH strongly increased J Ca and J Mg, whereas only a small increase in PDte was noted. In conclusion, these data suggest that PTH exerts a dual action on Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the mouse cTAL by increasing the transepithelial driving force for Ca2+ and Mg2+ reabsorption through hormone-mediated PDte alterations and by modifying the passive permeability for Ca2+ and Mg2+ of the epithelium, very probably at the level of the paracellular shunt pathway.
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