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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Restricted methylotroph ; RuMP pathway ; Growth on methanol and glucose ; Methanol dehydrogenase ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A restricted facultative methylotrophic RuMP type bacterium that can only utilize methanol and glucose has been found to possess a higher specific activity of methanol dehydrogenase during growth on glucose than during growth on methanol. The increased level of methanol dehydrogenase activity in glucose grown cells was the result of overproduction of the enzyme. In methanol grown cells 8% of the soluble protein consisted of methanol dehydrogenase, whereas in glucose grown cells the proportion amounted to 25%. The type of methanol dehydrogenase produced by this methylotroph could be separated from the crude extract and purified close to homogeneity in a one step procedure using cationic ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme is constitutive, and its level is determined by the growth rate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: RuMP and serine type methylotrophs ; Dissimilatory enzymes ; Taxonomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Methanol oxidation was studied in several RuMP and serine type methylotrophic bacteria. On the basis of the distribution of the dissimilatory enzymes and the electrophoretic mobility of the methanol dehydrogenases, the methanol and methane oxidizers of the RuMP type belong to two different taxonomic groups. The pink pigmented facultative serine type methylotrophs represent another taxon.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) ; Growth on methanol and multicarbon substrates ; Dissimilatory enzymes ; Enzyme activity and growth rate ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The synthesis of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, and formate dehydrogenase by pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) has been studied during growth on C1 and multicarbon substrates. In batch cultures, the methanol dehydrogenase activities were higher during slow growth on non-C1-compounds than during fast growth on methanol. Derepression of this enzyme also occurred at slow growth in methanol-limited chemostat culture. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase remained largely repressed during growth on multicarbon substrates.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The infection of plants with pathogens results in the induction of defence reactions as well as changes in carbohydrate metabolism. On the one hand, the pathogen attempts to manipulate the carbohydrate metabolism of the plant for its own advantage. On the other, the plant has to reorganize carbon fluxes to ensure fight against the pathogen. In order to further investigate the connection between pathogen infection and carbohydrate metabolism, the effects of two types of pathogen, biotrophic and necrotrophic, on gene expression, endogenous sugar levels and photosynthesis of tomato plants were analysed. Photosynthetic gene expression was downregulated on infection with Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, expression of a sink-specific gene encoding a cell wall invertase and of defence genes was induced by both pathogens. These results provide evidence for a co-regulation of defence, sink and photosynthetic gene expression in planta in response to both types of pathogen. The brassinosteroid-containing plant restorative ComCat enhanced resistance against B. cinerea and counter-regulated the repression of photosynthetic gene expression. Endogenous sugar levels decreased and the hexose to sucrose ratio increased on treatment with B. cinerea. The application of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the pathogen response. At 24 h after infection, inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was restricted to the direct vicinity of the infection site, which was surrounded by a circle of increased photosynthetic activity. The photosynthesis of the remaining leaf was not affected at this stage. These results show the usefulness of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for the assessment of the complex spatio-temporal changes and for the definition of the areas relevant for other types of determination, e.g. gene expression.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chenopodium ; Gene regulation ; Gene family ; Glucose transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Photoautotrophic suspension-culture cells of Chenopodium rubrum L. were shifted to mixotrophic growth by adding glucose to investigate whether the activities of plant sugar transporters, as well as the expression of the corresponding genes, are regulated in response to sugars. The rate of d-glucose uptake was shown not to be affected by mixotrophic growth in the presence of d-glucose. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was applied to amplify cDNA and genomic fragments from monosaccharide-carrier genes. Seven members of a monosaccharide-carrier family were identified of which three were found to be expressed in the suspension-culture cells. The expression of the monosaccharide-carrier genes was independent of the presence of d-glucose.
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