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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  Kooperative Versorgung - Vernetzte Forschung - Ubiquitäre Information; 49. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (gmds), 19. Jahrestagung der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik (SGMI) und Jahrestagung 2004 des Arbeitskreises Medizinische Informatik (ÖAKMI) der Österreichischen Computer Gesellschaft (OCG) und der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik (ÖGBMT); 20040926-20040930; Innsbruck; DOC04gmds134 /20040914/
    Publication Date: 2004-09-14
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  81. Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie; 20100512-20100516; Wiesbaden; DOC10hnod657 /20100422/
    Publication Date: 2010-04-23
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Portacaval shunt ; Arterialization ; Experimental cirrhosis ; Liver atrophy ; Portocavaler Shunt ; Arterialisation ; Experimentelle Cirrhose ; Leberatrophie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Der End-zu-Seit-portocavale Shunt ist bei portaler Hypertension noch immer wertvoll. Um die dadurch bedingte Reduktion der Lebergesamtperfusion zu verhindern, ist eine zusätzliche Arterialisation des Pfortaderstumpfes möglich. Die meisten Ergebnisse anderer Autoren sind widersprüchlich. Deshalb haben wir ein neues, Flow-adaptiertes Modell der Arterialisation an der gesunden und Thioazetamid-cirrhotischen Ratte (900 Operationen) untersucht. Durch die Arterialisation werden die Abnahme des Körpergewichtes, die Leberatrophie und die Abnahme der enzymatischen intrinsic activity des Lebergewebes verhindert.
    Notes: Summary The end-to-side portacaval shunt is still valid in cases of portal hypertension. In order to prevent the reduction of total liver perfusion induced thereby, an additional arterialization of the portal stump is possible. Most (experimental) results of other authors are contradictory. Therefore we have established a new model of flow-adapted arterialization in the healthy and thioacetamide-cirrhotic rat (about 900 operated rats). Decrease of body weight, liver atrophy and decrease of intrinsic (enzymatic) activity of liver tissue is prevented by additional arterialization.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: pentobarbital ; hexobarbital ; dipyrone ; intensive care ; D-glucaric acid ; pharmacokinetics ; drug interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of pentobarbital treatment in a mean dose of 30 mg/kg/day on the clearance of hexobarbital (Evipan) and dipyrone (Novalgin) has been evaluated in critical care patients receiving a large number of drugs as comedication. Eleven patients treated with pentobarbital showed a hexobarbital half-life of 2.79 h and a total plasma clearance of 9.80 ml·min−1·kg−1 as compared to 10 patients without pentobarbital administration in whom there was a significantly longer half life (6.92 h) and lower clearance (2.97 ml·min−1·kg−1). The kinetics of hexobarbital were correlated with the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid, a non-invasive parameter of drug metabolising activity. In 10 patients on pentobarbital, the total plasma clearance of N-4-methylaminoantipyrine, the active form of dipyrone, did not differ from that in 8 patients not receiving pentobarbital. As drug kinetics show great variability in these patients, it is difficult to discriminate enzyme induction from other mechanisms, for example competitive inhibition or changes in volume of distribution. In the presence of pentobarbital, however, induction of drug metabolising enzymes should be considered as a possible reason for the higher clearance of hexobarbital.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: cyclosporin A ; diltiazem ; pharmacokinetics ; kidney transplantation ; drug metabolism ; cytochrome P-450 ; drug interactions ; human liver microsomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Previous reports have indicated that administration of the calcium antagonist diltiazem results in major changes in the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A (CyA). A new clinical trial was undertaken in 22 renal transplant patients receiving a constant dose of cyclosporin to further explore this interaction. Coadministration of diltiazem for one week produced an increase in the blood concentration of CyA and its metabolites 17 and 18 in almost all patients, but no increase in CyA metabolites 1 and 21. The mean whole blood CyA trough level determined by HPLC rose from 117 ng·ml−1 to 170 ng·ml−1 after one week on diltiazem, and the mean trough level of metabolite 17 rose similarly from 184 ng·ml−1 before to 336 ng·ml−1. Based on experiments with microsomes from human liver the effect of diltiazem was due to noncompetitve inhibition of CyA-metabolism by diltiazem, and the increased concentration of metabolite 17 might have been due to stronger inhibition of its secondary metabolism steps.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Metamizol ; Acute renal failure ; Sepsis ; intensive care patients ; drug metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have studied the clearance of monomethylaminoantipyrine (MMAAP), the pharmacologically active form of metamizol, in 46 patients in surgical intensive care with different degrees of renal dysfunction. In 23 patients without any renal impairment, mean clearance was 2.8 ml·min−1·kg−1. Twentyone patients with acute renal impairment had a significantly reduced clearance of MMAAP (0.83 ml·min−1·kg−1). There was also reduced clearance in four patients with septic shock (1.0 ml·min−1·kg−1). Kinetics of the metabolites of MMAAP (N-formylaminoantipyrine (FAAP), aminoantipyrine (AAP), and its secondary product N-acetylaminoantipyrine (AcAAP)) were calculated. FAAP and AcAAP showed delayed invasion, which can be explained by reduced hepatic metabolic activity. The product of N-demethylation, AAP, was not significantly altered. The delayed elimination of monomethylaminoantipyrine can be explained by reduced hepatic function in parallel with acute renal failure due to disturbed cardiovascular function caused by septic shock. This may also lead to disturbed hepatic macro- and microperfusion associated with altered oxygen supply and oxygen consumption.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Temocapril ; Renal failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of renal impairment on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of temocapril and its pharmacologically active metabolite, temocapril diacid. Methods: A single oral dose of 20 mg temocapril hydrochloride was given after an overnight fast to eight healthy (control) subjects (group A, n=8) with a mean baseline creatinine clearance (CLCR) of 115.2 ml · min−1 and to three groups of patients with decreased renal function (mean CLCR 56.9 ml in group B, n=8, 30.0 ml · min−1 in group C, n=8 and 15.4 ml · min−1 in group D, n=5). Results: The mean peak concentration and median time to peak concentration for both temocapril and its diacid metabolite as well as the mean area under the curve (AUC0∞) for temocapril did not differ significantly between groups. The mean AUC0∞ for temocapril diacid increased only two- to threefold from group A to D. The mean terminal elimination half-life (t½) for temocapril diacid was prolonged in subjects with impaired renal function. However, prolongation of mean t½ and increase in AUC0−∞ did not parallel the decrease of mean renal clearance for temocapril diacid. Conclusion: The results suggest the existence of an alternative pathway in addition to the renal excretion of temocapril, e.g. via the bile. This pathway substantially contributes to the elimination of the active metabolite, temocapril diacid, in patients with decreased renal function. Nonetheless, to avoid any risks, the dose of temocapril hydrochloride in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment should be reduced.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Ceftriaxone ; Pharmacokinetics ; Acute renal failure ; Intensive care patients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Serum concentrations of ceftriaxone (RocephinTM), a third generation cephalosporin, were monitored in 5 operative intensive care patients suffering from acute renal failure (ARF) and compared to those of 7 patients without renal disturbance. For a period of 7 days, a fixed dose of 2 g/day was given by a 15 min infusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by fitting all serum and urine data measured over the period of treatment. Ceftriaxone free fraction was measured on days 2 and 7. There was no evidence for an intraindividual change in ceftriaxone-clearance during the observation period. Ceftriaxone renal clearance was closely dependent on creatinine clearance according to a linear regression expressed by Clren=0.14 Clcrea+2.2 (r=0.951,p〈0.0001). Total clearance was also associated with creatinine clearance: Cltot=0.19 Clcrea+8.2 (r=0.964,p〈0.0001). Related to the free fraction, renal clearance was in the range of the glomerular filtration rate. Non-renal clearance was strongly decreased when related to the free fraction indicating that biliary excretion is also impaired in patients with acute renal failure. Obviously no compensatory increase in hepatic ceftriaxone clearance takes place. It is concluded that elimination of ceftriaxone may be strongly impaired during acute renal failure in surgical intensive care patients and that dosage should be restricted according to degree of the impairment of creatinine clearance.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-9861
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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