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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: BRCA1 ; breast cancer ; chemically modified tetracycline ; E-cadherin/catenin ; invasion ; migration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are promising anti-cancer agents. In this study, we found that CMT-3 and CMT-8 showed dose-dependent cytotoxicities in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Moreover, both CMT-3 and CMT-8 significantly inhibited in vitro cell migration and invasion at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Anti-invasion and migration potentials of the CMTs were associated with an increased expression of E-cadherin/catenins (α, β and γ-catenin) and tumor suppressor BRCA1. In addition, CMT-3 and CMT-8 abolished or reduced spontaneous and HGF/SF-induced cell invasion and migration in U-373 MG human glioblastoma cells. Our current finding is the first demonstration that CMT-3 and CMT-8 can activate the function of invasion suppressor molecules associated with the suppression of breast cancer cell invasion and migration. Thus, clinical application of CMTs may provide potential benefit for suppression of breast cancer growth, invasion and metastasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: Indole-3-carbinol ; breast cancer ; invasion ; migration ; PTEN ; E-cadherin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a promising phytochemical agent in chemoprevention of breast cancer. Our present study is the first description of I3C that significantly inhibits the cell adhesion, spreading and invasion associated with an up-regulation of PTEN (a tumor suppressor gene) and E-cadherin (a regulator of cell–cell adhesion) expression in T47-D human breast cancer cells. Therefore, I3C exhibits anti-cancer activities by suppressing breast tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Metastatic breast cancer is a devastating problem, clinical application of I3C as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The smooth muscle cell population in major arteries of humans and experimental animals is heterogeneous with regard tocellular DNA content. A proportion of cells has polyploid DNA content and this proportion increases with normal aging and with hypertension. We have isolated pure populations of rat aortic smooth muscle cells containing 2C, 4C, and 8C DNA content by cloning of cultures of cells previously subjected to flow cytometric cell sorting. Karyologic analysis of these clonal populations revealed them to be pure diploid, tetraploid, and octaploid populations, respectively, containing 2N (= 42), 4N, and 8N chromosomes. Cell attachment area and nuclear size appeared to increase with the level of ploidy. Studies of the proliferative characteristics of the cells revealed that the growth rate and ultimate cell densities achieved decreased as the ploidy level increased. The intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of these clones did not vary with ploidy. Increased smooth muscle cell ploidy is, therefore, associated with a decreased rate of proliferation. The emergence of smooth muscle cells with polyploid DNA content under normal and pathologic conditios is probably due to mitotic polyploidization without net cell proliferation and may be related to the need for expression of differentiated functions.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth may play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Recent studies have demonstrated that, under different growth stimuli in vivo, SMC may respond by proliferation of diploid cells, polyploidization to the tetraploid (or even octaploid) state, or both. In this study, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the intrinsic tendencies of aortic SMC and nonarterial cells from rats of different strains, ages, and blood pressures to polyploidize in response to in vitro growth stimulation. Significant strain-related differences in polyploidization of aortic SMC were found (P 〈 0.001): highest in WKY (normotensive inbred rat related to SHR), intermediate in SHR (genetically hypertensive rat), and lowest in Sprague-Dawley and Fischer (normotensive outbred and inbred rats). Animal age had less or no effect on the degree of polyploidization. Nonarterial cells (venous SMC and lung cells) from WKY and SHR remained essentially diploid, suggesting tissue specificity of in vitro polyploidization. Studies of the growth kinetics of uncloned and clonal populations of aortic SMC revealed decreased proliferation as the ploidy increased in WKY, SHR, and Sprague-Dawley, These findings suggest that genetic strain factors as well as cell type/site of origin significantly influence in vitro polyploidization, whereas animal age and blood pressure do not. The findings also emphasize the need to consider ploidy changes when evaluating in vitro SMC growth kinetics. Further studies will improve understanding of SMC growth regulation and the functional significance of vascular polyploidy.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Scatter factor (SF) is a fibroblast-derived cytokine which stimulates motility of epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. We used a quantitative assay based on migration of cells from microcarrier beads to flat surfaces to study the regulation of motility in bovine brain endothelial cells (BBEC). Peptide growth factors (EGF, ECGF, basic FGF) did not stimulate migration. Tumor promoting phorbol esters (PMA, PDD) markedly stimulated migration, while inactive phorbol esters (4a-PDD, phorbol-13,20-diacetate) did not affect migration. Both SF- and PMA-stimulated migration were inhibited by (1) TGF-beta; (2) protein kinase inhibitors (e.g., staurosporine, K-252a); (3) activators of the adenylate cyclase signaling pathway (e.g., dibutyryl cyclic AMP, theophylline); (4) cycloheximide; and (5) anti-cytoskeleton agents (e.g., cytochalasin B, colcemid). However, PMA and SF pathways were distinguishable: (1) PMA induced additional migration at saturating SF concentrations; (2) the onset of migration-stimulation was immediate for PMA and delayed for SF; and (3) down-modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) ablated PMA but not SF responsiveness. Assessment of PKC by (3H)-phorbol ester (PDBu) binding and by immunoblot showed (1) scatter factor does not cause significant redistribution or down-modulation of PDBu binding or alpha-PKC; and (2) PDBu mediates redistribution and down-modulation of both binding and alpha-PKC. These findings suggest two pathways for BBEC motility: a PKC-dependent pathway and an SF-stimulated/PKC-independent pathway.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have utilized clonal strains of bovine fetal aortic endothelial cells to study cellular senescence in a differentiated cell type of physiological significance. Serial subcultivation of nine endothelial clones derived from three fetal calf aortas revealed proliferative life-spans in vitro of 53-125 population doublings (PDs), compared with 60 and 143 PDs for two lines of bovine fetal lung cells and 85 and 147 PDs for two lines of bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. Serial growth curves showed marked reductions associated with endothelial cellular senescence both in cellular growth rate and culture plateau density. Studies of the 24-hour [3H]-thymidine labeling index versus percentage of proliferative life-span completed indicated that clonal endothelial cultures contained a large proportion (greater than 90%) of rapidly cycling cells until about 75% of the life-spans were completed. Senescent endothelial cells showed evidence of large increases in cell area, cell volume, and protein content. In those clones examined, one specialized endothelial function, Factor VIII antigen expression, was retained qualitatively throughout the life-spans.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured in lysates of cloned and uncloned cultures of bovine fetal aortic endothelial cells. The expression of ACE activity in these cells was complex, and influenced by subcultivation, cell density, serum, cumulative population doublings, and clonal heterogeneity. The ACE specific activity at any point in the in vitro lifespan was determined, at least in part, by interaction of these culture variables. After subcultivation to subconfluent densities, cellular ACE specific activity decreased markedly and did not reach detectable levels until cells attained confluent densities. The use of different suppliers' lots of serum in the growth medium resulted in different cellular ACE specific activities. The ACE specific activity decreased as cultures were serially subcultivated, but remained detectable throughout the lifespan, suggesting a linkage between the proliferative history of an endothelial cell and its remaining capacity to express ACE. Increased ACE activity was observed when cells at the end of their lifespan were cultured at high densities. Cloned strains behaved similarly to the uncloned parent culture, except that they exhibited a wide range of ACE specific activities.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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