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  • 1
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Estimating heat treatment of muscle foods by analysis of phosphatase enzyme activity using disodium phenyl phosphate (DSPP) as substrate and 2,6 dibromoquinone chlorimide (2,6 DBQ) for color development is subject to interference by some common spices. Both false high and false low results of the reactions have been demonstrated. Phenolics, which are common in spices and flavorings, may react with 2,6 DBQ to form the characteristic blue indophenol color indicating enzyme activity in samples with no phosphatase, or may interfere with indophenol formation in samples containing phosphatase, depending upon concentration. The possibility of false high or false low results, and therefore implied over or under processing, should be considered when using 2,6 DBQ in phosphatase enzyme analysis of foods.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 30 (1974), S. 1120-1123 
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gliotoxin, a mycotoxin with antimicrobial and immunosuppressive capabilities, is produced by several genera of fungi including the pathogenic fungusAspergillus fumigatus. The ability of selected isolates ofA. fumigatus to produce gliotoxin on three different media was tested and a thin layer chromatographic and high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of gliotoxin from rice culture was developed and is described. Rice cultures were extracted with chloroform and the resulting extract was partially purified by precipitation with petroleum ether and cleanup by gel permeation chromatography. Gliotoxin was detected by thin layer chromatography and quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography using a U.V. absorbance detector with a 254 nm filter and a mobile phase of methanol-water 43∶57 (V/V) with a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min. The retention time for gliotoxin was approximately 4.8 min. From rice samples spiked with gliotoxin concentrations of 0.67, 1.33, 2.67, 4.00 and 5.33μg/g the average recovery was 83.8%.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: fumonisins ; milk ; Fusarium ; cows ; analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins produced by the ubiquitous fungi Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, were first identified about eight years ago. They have been shown to cause a variety of health effects in animals, including epidemiological evidence of esophageal cancer in humans. Cattle are less sensitive to ill effects than horses and swine. Fumonisins are common contaminants of low quality grain fed to cattle. Culture material containing fumonisins (FB1, FB2, and FB3) was mixed into the total diet and fed for 14 days to two midlactation Jersey cows to determine if fumonisins are excreted in milk. The dietary equivalent of fumonisin was approximately 75 ppm and the two cows consumed an average of 3 mg fumonisin Bl /kg body weight (b wt)/day. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the milk samples by two analytical laboratories using methods with a sensitivity of 5 ng/ml. Except for transient diarrhea at the beginning of the contaminant feeding period and an increase in serum cholesterol, clinical and hematologie changes were not observed in the animals. The appearance or carry over of fumonisins from feed to milk in dairy cows does not appear to be significant and likely not a hazard or food safety concern for humans.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin B1 fumonisin B2 ; equine leukoencephalomalacia ; swine pulmonary edema ; animal feeds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ninety-eight samples of feeds associated with 44 cases of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) and 83 samples of feed associated with 42 cases of a porcine pulmonary edema syndrome (PPE) were analyzed for fumonisin B1 (FB1). For comparison purposes, 51 feed samples not associated with PPE or ELEM were also analyzed. Feed associated with ELEM contained FB1 ranging from less than 1 μg/g to 126 μg/g with 75% of the cases having at least 1 sample above 10 μg/g. Feeds associated with PPE ranged from less than 1 μg/g to 330 μg/g with 71% of the cases having at least 1 sample greater than 10 μg/g. Quantitation was by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence using the fluorescamine derivative with confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and/or gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; equine leukoencephalomalacia ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An experiment to gain insight into the minimum toxic dose of fumonisins was conducted by feeding ponies rations with known fumonisin concentrations. Naturally contaminated corn screenings (CS) were blended with pellets, corn, and molasses to formulate individual daily diets. One group of 4 ponies was fed a ration with fumonisin B1 (FB1) varying from 〈1 ppm to 22 ppm. A second group of 5 ponies was fed a ration at varying rates containing 8 ppm FB1 for 180 days. A panel of clinical chemistry parameters was evaluated twice weekly for both groups. One pony in the first group died of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) after 225 days of which the final 55 days' diet contained 22 ppm FB1. Approximately 9 days prior to death, this animal experienced elevated liver chemistry values. All 5 ponies in the second group experienced mild, transient, clincal signs; were euthanized at 180 days; and had mild, histopathological brain lesions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aspergillosis ; pathogenesis ; avian disease ; mycotoxin ; airsacculitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirteen samples of infected turkey lung tissue from cases of ‘airsacculitis’ were collected either at the processing plant or from a local turkey farm and subjected to cultural and gliotoxin analysis. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from 6 of the 13 samples; all isolates were determined to be gliotoxin producers when grown in laboratory culture and assayed by HPLC procedures. Gliotoxin was isolated from 5 of the 13 tissues but was not isolated from all tissues that were infected with A. fumigatus. Gliotoxin was isolated from two tissues from which no A. fumigatus was isolated and it was not detected in three tissues from which gliotoxin-producing isolates of A. fumigatus were obtained. The ability of this pathogenic fungus to produce this immunomodulating compound in naturally infected turkeys provides further evidence that gliotoxin may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, aspergillosis of turkeys.
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