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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; CELLS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; ASSOCIATION ; BONE-MARROW ; LYMPHOCYTES ; MOUSE MODEL ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; microglia ; AMYOTROPHIC-LATERAL-SCLEROSIS ; inflammation ; FAS ; BLOOD MONOCYTES ; Parkinson's disease ; CCL2 ; FAS/FASLG
    Abstract: Despite extensive effort on studying inflammatory processes in the CNS of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, implications of peripheral monocytes are still poorly understood. Here, we set out to obtain a comprehensive picture of circulating myeloid cells in PD patients. We applied a human primary monocyte culture system and flow cytometry-based techniques to determine the state of monocytes from PD patients during disease. We found that the classical monocytes are enriched in the blood of PD patients along with an increase in the monocyte-recruiting chemoattractant protein CCL2. Moreover, we found that monocytes from PD patients display a pathological hyperactivity in response to LPS stimulation that correlates with disease severity. Inflammatory pre-conditioning was also reflected on the transcriptome in PD monocytes using next-generation sequencing. Further, we identified the CD95/CD95L as a key regulator for the PD-associated alteration of circulating monocytes. Pharmacological neutralization of CD95L reverses the dysregulation of monocytic subpopulations in favor of non-classical monocytes. Our results suggest that PD monocytes are in an inflammatory predisposition responding with hyperactivation to a "second hit". These results provide the first direct evidence that circulating human peripheral blood monocytes are altered in terms of their function and composition in PD patients. This study provides insights into monocyte biology in PD and establishes a basis for future studies on peripheral inflammation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25284487
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 165 (1938), S. 272-294 
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of gynecology and obstetrics 178 (1950), S. 58-62 
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Benutzung der trigonometrischen Grundprinzipien ermöglicht die Anwendung der präoperativen theoretischen Schätzung für die chirurgische Korrektur der Knochenmißbildungen in den langen Knochen mit präzisen Keilresektionen, ohne Schablone oder der Benutzung des Goniometers in einem limitierten Operationsfeld zu benötigen. Die beschriebene Methode hat sich sowohl genau als auch einfach erwiesen und entfernt andere Instrumente und ungeeignete Manipulationen während der Operation.
    Notes: Summary The use of basic trigonometrical principles enables the translation of theoretical pre-operative estimations for the correction of bony deformities in long bones into accurate wedge resections at surgery without the need for templates or the use of goniometer in a restricted operative field. The method described has been shown both to be accurate and simple, obviating the need for extra instrumentation and undue manipulation during surgery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 224 (1995), S. 265-291 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The jaw, suprahyoid, and extrinsic tongue muscles are described for eight species of New World squirrels, spanning more than an order of magnitude in body mass. Anatomical differences are discussed in the light of body size, natural history, and phylogeny. The relative sizes of different muscles, their orientations, and the shapes and positions of their areas of attachment vary but show few trends in relation to body size. The anatomical differences are likewise not readily explained by the mechanical requirements of the animals' diets, which are similar. The most marked anatomical differences occur in Sciurillus (the pygmy tree squirrel), as well as those genera - Glaucomys (the flying squirrel) and Tamias (the chipmunk) - that are taxonomically most distinct from the tree squirrels. sciurillus is noteworthy for its unusually small temporalis and an anterior deep masseter that is oriented to assist in retraction of the jaw. Tamias has a more vertically oriented temporalis and greater inclination in the anterior masseter muscles than the other squirrels, features that may be associated with its large diastema and relatively posteriorly situated cheek teeth, which in turn may relate to its having cheek pouches. Our results form a valuable database of information to be used in further studies of functional morphology and phylogeny. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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