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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-5196
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Rechtsmedizin ; Didaktik ; Ökologischer Kurs ; Unterrichtsevaluation ; Keywords Legal medicine ; Didactic ; Ecology course ; Evaluation of instruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract In the winter semester 1998/1999 the course of legal medicine included 26 h of obligatory teaching. The course consists of several seminars of 2 h and an accompanying lecture. The contents of the seminars included a practical execution of an external post-mortem examination, participation at an autopsy with recording of the findings and subsequent discussion, legal aspects of the medical profession as well as clinical-forensic opinions on injuries. The acceptance of the curriculum could be verified by a questionnaire filled out by the students. Of the 361 students, 72% participated in the survey. The course was graded with an average of 1.7 on an scale of 1–6. The answers on the structure and content of lectures were graded on a scale from 1 (not relevant) to 7 (relevant). The logical construction, organisation, presentation and interest value of the topics were graded with an average of 6 points. A continual evaluation is also planned for subsequent semesters.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der Kurs Rechtsmedizin an der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover sah im Wintersemester 1998/99 für jeden Studierenden ¶26 Pflichtstunden vor. Er bestand aus mehreren 2-stündigen Seminaren und einer kursbegleitenden Vorlesung. Die Seminare hatten folgende Inhalte: Praktische Durchführung einer Leichenschau, Teilnahme an einer Sektion mit Protokollerstellung und Nachbesprechung, Berufsrecht und -kunde sowie klinische Rechtsmedizin mit Verletzungsbegutachtung. Zusammen mit den zusätzlichen Lehrangeboten umfasste die Lehre für das Fach Rechtsmedizin etwa 15 Semesterwochenstunden. Die Akzeptanz des Curriculums sollte durch eine Befragung der Studierenden überprüft werden. Von insgesamt 361 Studierenden beteiligten sich 72% an der Befragung. Auf einer Notenskala von 1–6 wurde der Kurs insgesamt mit der Durchschnittsnote 1,7 bewertet. Auf einer Skala von 1 (= trifft nicht zu) bis 7 (= trifft zu) wurden Aussagen zu Struktur und Inhalt von Vorlesungen und Seminaren eingeordnet. Mit einer durchschnittlichen Bewertung von über 6 Punkten wurden logischer Aufbau, Organisation, Anschaulichkeit und interessante Darbietung des Stoffes bewertet. Auch für die kommenden Semester ist eine kontinuierliche Lehrevaluation vorgesehen.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: SID ; SIDS ; Hyperthermia ; Swaddling ; Death scene investigation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract To determine whether preterminal hyperthermia is significantly associated with sudden infant death (SID), 140 structured interviews with parents of SID victims were compared with questionnaires filled in by a control group of parents living in the same area. All SID autopsies were performed between 1986 and 1992 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Hannover Medical School according to the same protocol. Signs of profuse sweating (i.e. moist head, damp clothing or bedding) were present at the scene of death in 35.7% of cases. SID victims with signs of profuse sweating were more frequently found under their bedding (p 〈 0.001), were older (178 vs. 130 days) and the time period between when they were last seen alive and when they were found dead was longer (6.5 vs. 4.5 hours p 〈 0.01) compared to cases without sweating. Sweat on the head [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 3.6], and sweaty clothing and bedding (OR = 17.9; 95% CI = 8.7; 37.1) showed a significant association with the risk for SID. The pathophysiological basis for hyperthermia in SID remains to be determined. Hyperthermia could result from infection, overinsulation from excessive clothing with high environmental temperatures, covering of the infant's head or immature central thermoregulatory centres. The influence on the fatal outcome and the role in the pathogenesis of these deaths requires further research.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Sudden infant death syndrome ; Prone ; position ; Face-down position ; Hypoxia ; Death-scene investigation ; Head covering
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract We examined the position of the body and head, and the covering of the head by bedding on discovery in cases of sudden infant death (SID) in Lower Saxony. Between 1.1.1986 and 31.12.1992 structured, questionnaire-based interviews were carried out with parents of 140 SID victims. Control data were taken from a population-based cross-sectional study on infant sleeping position performed by the German Health Office (BGA) in autumn 1991. Of the SID cases 86.4% were discovered in the prone position [odds ratio (OR) = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.3, 12.7] and 41.4% were found with the head covered. These infants were significantly older than those where the head was uncovered (p 〈 0.001) and covering of the head showed a significant association with a risk of SID (OR = 20.8; 95% CI = 11.5–37.6). Of the SID cases 27.9% were discovered in the face-down position. These infants were significantly younger than the infants who were discovered with the head in a side or supine position (p 〈 0.001). This study confirms the increased risk of SID associated with the prone position and suggests that this association could be related to the development of hypoxaemia or hypercapnia. Together with other factors such as heat stress or an infection, hypoxaemia or hypercapnia could culminate in SID if the arousal from sleep and auto-resuscitation apparently fails.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: GEDNAP IV ; GEDNAP V ; RFLP systems PCR systems ; Bloodstains
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract In the collaborative exercise GEDNAP IV one EDTA blood sample (2 ml) and 5 bloodstains (0.5 ml on cotton) were investigated and in GEDNAP V, a total of 8 bloodstains (0.5 m1 on cotton), including 2 mixed bloodstains. DNA typing was carried out using the RFLP systems YNH24/Hinf I and MS43a/Hinf I and the PCR systems HLA DQα, D1S80, ApoB and YNZ22. In both exercises approximately 20 laboratories obtained results using the RFLP systems. Of the PCR systems, DIS80 was the most commonly used (14 labs in GEDNAP IV; 18 labs in GEDNAP V). The interlaboratory standard deviation for YNH24 in both exercises was approx. 0.6%, for MS43a 0.7–2.2% (GEDNAP IV) and 0.4–1.4% (GEDNAP V), depending on the fragment size. The fragment size calculation performed in each laboratory yielded a standard deviation twice that obtained when the fragment size calculation was performed centrally (IfR, Münster). In GEDNAP III, a system-specific corridor was developed to define the limits of deviation; this was modified for the present study by combining the fragment size ranges of YNH24 and MS43a. In both studies a subgroup of laboratories was involved in preliminary exercises using three PCR VNTRs and the system HLA DQα. Owing to the substantial variation in experience of the participating laboratories with PCR typing the results obtained in these two studies do not fulfil the basic quality criteria of the GEDNAP studies.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Forensic serology, Hp subtypes ; Haptoglobin subtyping, by isoelectric focusing ; Forensische Serogenetik, Hp-Subtypen ; Haptoglobin-Subtypisierung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Beschrieben wird eine Methode zur Haptoglobin-Subtypisierung mittels isoelektrischer Fokussierung im 0,2 mm Ultradünnschicht-Polyacrylamidgel nach ionenaustauschchromatographischer Isolierung und reduktiver Spaltung des Haptoglobins. Durch die Anwendung ultradünner Gele wird bei geringem Zeit- und Materialaufwand eine hohe isoelektrophoretische Auftrennung der Hp-Subtypen erreicht sowie eine sequentielle Visualisierung durch Fixierung und Protein-Färbung ermöglicht. Die Subtypenverteilung in einer Stichprobe von 1500 unverwandten Erwachsenen aus Hannover und Niedersachsen wird mitgeteilt, aus der sich folgende Allelfrequenzen errechnen: Hp*2FF=0,0030; *2FS=0,5620; *2SS=0,0290; *1F=0,1537; *1S=0,2523. Die Segregationsanalyse bei 68 Familien zeigt keine Abweichung vom autosomal-kodominanten Erbgang. Für die untersuchte Population beträgt die isolierte Vaterschaftsausschlußchance des subtypisierten Hp-Systems 33,91%.
    Notes: Summary This report describes a method for subtyping haptoglobin by means of isoelectric focusing in 0.2-mm ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gels. Haptoglobin (Hp) is purified by ion-exchange chromatography and reduced. The well-known advantages of ultrathin-layer gels combine high isoelectrophoretic resolution of the Hp subtypes with less demands for time and material and make sequential visualization by fixation and protein staining possible. The distribution of the Hp subtypes in 1500 unrelated adults from Hanover and Lower Saxony is presented. Allelic frequencies are calculated to be: Hp*2FF=0.0030; *2FS=0.5620; *2SS=0.0290; *1F=0.1537; *1S=0.2523. Segregation analysis for 68 matings shows an autosomal codominant mode of transmission in all cases. For the population investigated the chance of isolated paternity exclusion with the subtyped Hp system amounts to 33.91%.
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