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  • 1
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Food Chemistry 44 (1992), S. 93-101 
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Intracortical inhibitory circuits ; Brain stimulation ; Motor cortex ; descending volleys ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A magnetic transcranial conditioning stimulus given over the motor cortex at intensities below threshold for obtaining electromyographical (EMG) responses in active hand muscles can suppress responses evoked in the same muscles at rest by a suprathreshold magnetic test stimulus given 1–5 ms later. In order to define the mechanism of this inhibitory effect, we recorded descending volleys produced by single and paired magnetic transcranial stimulation of motor cortex through high cervical, epidural electrodes implanted for pain relief in two conscious subjects with no abnormality of the central nervous system. The conditioning stimulus evoked no recognisable descending activity in the spinal cord, whilst the test stimulus evoked 3–4 waves of activity (I-waves). Conditioning stimulation suppressed the size of both the descending spinal cord volleys and the EMG responses evoked by the test stimulus. Inhibition of the descending spinal volleys was most pronounced at ISI 1 ms and had disappeared by ISI 5 ms. It was evident for all components following the I1-wave, while the I1-wave itself was not inhibited at all. We conclude that a small conditioning magnetic stimulus can suppress the excitability of human motor cortex, probably by activating local cortico-cortical inhibitory circuits.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Magnetic stimulation ; Motor cortex ; Corpus callosum ; Descending volleys ; Interhemispheric inhibition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Electromyographic (EMG) responses evoked in hand muscles by a magnetic test stimulus over the motor cortex can be suppressed if a conditioning stimulus is applied to the opposite hemisphere 6–30 ms earlier. In order to define the mechanism and the site of action of this inhibitory phenomenon, we recorded descending volleys produced by the test stimulus through high cervical, epidural electrodes implanted for pain relief in three conscious subjects. These could be compared with simultaneously recorded EMG responses in hand muscles. When the test stimulus was given on its own it evoked three waves of activity (I-waves) in the spinal cord, and a small EMG response in the hand. A prior conditioning stimulus to the other hemisphere suppressed the size of both the descending spinal cord volleys and the EMG responses evoked by the test stimulus when the interstimulus interval was greater than 6 ms. In the spinal recordings, the effect was most marked for the last I-wave (I3), whereas the second I2-wave was only slightly inhibited, and the first I-wave (I1) was not inhibited at all. We conclude that transcranial stimulation over the lateral part of the motor cortex of one hemisphere can suppress the excitability of the contralateral motor cortex.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Brain stimulation ; Electrical stimulation ; Motor cortex ; Descending volleys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The spinal volleys evoked by electric anodal and cathodal stimulation over the cerebral motor cortex hand area were recorded from a bipolar electrode inserted into the cervical epidural space of two conscious human subjects. We measured the size of volleys elicited by electric stimulation at active motor threshold and at 3% of maximum stimulator output above this value with subjects at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction of the contralateral first dorsal interosseous muscle. Surface EMG activity was recorded at the same time. Electrical anodal stimulation evoked a single negative wave that we termed D-wave in analogy with data in experimental animals. Cathodal stimulation evoked a single negative wave with a latency of 0.2 ms longer than the D-wave recruited by anodal stimulation. At both intensities tested, voluntary contraction did not modify the amplitude of the descending waves. We conclude that changes in cortical excitability induced by voluntary activity do not modify the corticospinal volley evoked by electric stimulation and that the D-waves evoked by both anodal and cathodal electric stimulation are probably initiated several nodes distant to the cell body.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Magnetic stimulation ; Silent period ; Handedness
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We performed transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in 22 left-handed and 25 right-handed subjects during active contraction of a small hand muscle. Motor evoked potentials had the same latency, amplitude and threshold on both sides of the body, whilst the silent period duration was shorter in the dominant hand. Silent periods elicited by nerve and brainstem stimulation were the same in both hands. Since the latter part of the cortical silent period is due mainly to withdrawal of corticospinal input to spinal motoneurones, we speculate that the results are compatible with the suggestion that tonic contractions of the non-dominant hand are associated with a greater involvement of the corticospinal tract than those of the dominant hand. It also seems likely that there is an asymmetry in the excitability of cortical inhibitory mechanisms with those responsible for the cortical silent period being less excitable in the dominant motor cortex.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Transcranial magnetic stimulation ; Motor imagery ; H-reflex ; Motor evoked potentials ; Temporal change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We investigated temporal changes in the amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left motor cortex during motor imagery. Nine subjects were instructed to imagine repetitive wrist flexion and extension movements at 1 Hz, in which the flexion timing was cued by a tone signal. Electromyographs (EMGs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the right hand, and magnetic stimulation was delivered at 0, 250, 500 and 750 ms after the auditory cue. On average, the evoked EMG responses were larger in the flexor muscle during the phase of imagined flexion than during extension, whilst the opposite was true for the extensor muscle. There were no consistent changes in the amplitudes of MEPs in the intrinsic hand muscle (first dorsal interosseous). The EMG remained relaxed in all muscles and did not show any significant temporal changes during the test. The H-reflex in the flexor muscle was obtained in four subjects. There was no change in its amplitude during motor imagery. These observations lead us to suggest that motor imagery can have dynamic effects on the excitability of motor cortex similar to those seen during actual motor performance.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Somatosensory evoked potential ; Long latency stretch reflex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cerebral evoked potential produced by rapid extension of the wrist was recorded from scalp electrodes in normal subjects while they exerted a small background flexor torque (0.24 Nm) against an electric motor. The initial part of the response consisted of a negative deflection (N1) with an average latency of 24.7 ms. This was followed by a biphasic P1/P2 (32 ms) response and a large later negative wave (N2) (76 ms). Passive wrist extension also evoked reflex EMG responses in the forearm flexor muscles which could be resolved into a short latency (25 ms) and long-latency (52 ms) component. The cerebral responses persisted almost unchanged during complete ischaemic anaesthesia of the hand produced by a pressure cuff around the wrist, and were reduced if the stretch was given during voluntary wrist flexion. The primary component (N1-P1/ P2) of the cerebral response probably represents the arrival at the cortex of the muscle afferent volley. However, the significance of the secondary component (P1/P2-N2) is unknown. Under certain conditions, its size was related to the size of the long latency stretch reflex evoked by stretch of the flexor muscles. Thus, increasing the velocity of stretch or decreasing the repetition rate (from 1.0 to 0.15 Hz) at which stretches were applied, increased the size of both the muscle reflex and the cerebral response. The secondary component also could be changed by voluntary reaction to wrist stretch. Changes in the size of the secondary component of the evoked response may represent the earliest cortical sign of interaction between sensory input and motor output.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular system ; Galvanic stimulation ; Posture ; Electromyogram ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Application of a small (around 1 mA), constant electric current between the mastoid processes (galvanic stimulation) of a standing subject produces enhanced body sway in the approximate direction of the ear behind which the anode is placed. We examined the electromyographic (EMG) responses evoked by such stimulation in the soleus and in the triceps brachii muscles. For soleus, subjects stood erect, with their eyes closed, leaning slightly forward. The head was turned approximately 90° to the right or left relative to the feet. In averaged records (n=40), current pulses of 25 ms or longer modulated the EMG in a biphasic manner: a small early component (latency 62±2.4 ms, mean ± SEM) was followed by a larger late component (latency 115±5.2ms) of opposite sign, which was appropriate to produce the observed body sway. The early component produced no measurable body movement. Lengthening the duration of the stimulus pulse from 25 to 400 ms prolonged the late component of the response but had little effect on the early component. Short- and long-latency EMG responses were also evoked in the triceps brachii muscle if subjects stood on a transversely pivoted platform and had to use the muscle to maintain their balance in the anteroposterior plane by holding a fixed handle placed by the side of their hip. The latency of the early component was 41±2.6 ms; the latency of the late component was 138±4.3 ms and was again of appropriate sign for producing the observed body sway. Galvanic stimulation evoked no comparable responses in either triceps brachii or soleus muscles if these muscles were not being used posturally. The responses were most prominent if vestibular input provided the dominant source of information about postural stability, and were much smaller if subjects lightly touched a fixed support or opened their eyes. The difference in latency between the onset of the early component of the response in arm and leg muscles suggests that this part of the response uses a descending pathway which conducts impulses down the spinal cord with a velocity comparable with that of the fast conducting component of the corticospinal tract. The late component of the EMG response occurs earlier in the leg than the arm. We suggest that it forms part of a patterned, functional response which is computed independently of the early component.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Propriospinal premotoneurone ; Transcranial stimulation ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We tested the hypothesis that some of the electromyographic (EMG) responses elicited in preactivated forearm muscles by transcranial stimulation of the human motor cortex are produced by activity in a disynaptic corticospinal linkage involving propriospinal-like interneurones with cell bodies in the spinal C3–4 segments. The experimental design incorporated a previous observation that stimulation of afferents in the superficial radial nerve inhibits propriospinal-like neurones projecting to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle. Surface EMG responses were recorded from the active ECR muscle after transcranial electrical or magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex. In random trials, single conditioning stimuli at twice perceptual threshold were given to the superficial radial nerve at the wrist at different times before a cortical shock. When the cortex was stimulated electrically, the conditioning stimulus suppressed the EMG responses when the interval between the shocks was 11 ms or more. This was about 3.5 ms longer than the minimum time calculated for a possible direct cutaneous effect on spinal motoneurones. The time course of suppression began earlier and was more complex during magnetic stimulation of the cortex. It is argued that this difference is due to the repetitive I waves generated by the magnetic shock. Whether electrical or magnetic stimulation was used, the first 1–3 ms of the EMG response was relatively unaffected by superficial radial nerve stimulation at any interstimulus interval, whereas clear suppression was seen in the later portion of the response. In contrast, if the EMG response in ECR was suppressed by a conditioning stimulus to the median nerve at the elbow, then all portions of the EMG response were inhibited including the first 1–3 ms. The median nerve effect is thought to be due to direct reciprocal inhibition of the extensor motoneurones. Thus sparing of the initial part of the cortically evoked response with superficial radial stimulation suggests that the latter type of inhibition occurs at a premotoneuronal level. The timing of the effect is compatible with the explanation that corticospinal excitation is produced in ECR motoneurones through both monosynaptic and disynaptic (including propriospinal premotoneuronal) pathways, with superficial radial nerve inhibition being exerted at the propriospinal level.
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