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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 144 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Incubation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmatis cells with the sugar components of their surface-exposed glycans demonstrated that d-arabinose, but not α-d-glucose or d-mannose, led to the dispersion of the large clumps formed by the bacilli in stationary liquid cultures. These results confirm the presence of arabinose-containing glycans on the mycobacterial cell surface and demonstrate the implication of selective sugars in cell aggregation, suggesting that the clumping of mycobacterial cells is probably mediated by lectin-carbohydrate interactions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Interaction of 24 different seed lectins/ isolectins from the Leguminosae with muramic acid (MurAc), N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and muramyl-dipeptides (MDP), was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination. Although many lectins were shown to interact, irrespective of their monosaccharide-specificity or systematic position, glucose/mannose-specific lectins from the tribe Vicieae exhibited the best affinity for these components of the bacterial cell wall. The discrepancies observed in the binding of the muramyl-dipeptide diastereo-isomers to lectins suggest that the binding is somewhat conformation-dependent. These interactions could be possibly involved in the recognition of bacteria by plants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The α-amylase from Tenebrio molitor larvae (TMA) has been crystallized in complex with the α-amylase inhibitor (α-AI) from the bean Phaseolus vulgaris. A molecular-replacement solution of the structure was obtained using the refined pig pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and α-AI atomic coordinates as starting models. The structural analysis showed that although TMA has the typical structure common to α-amylases, large deviations from the mammalian α-amylase models occur in the loops. Despite these differences in the interacting loops, the bean inhibitor is still able to inhibit both the insect and mammalian α-amylase.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: lectins ; crystal structure ; lectin specificity ; mannose ; glucose ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure of the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex has been solved by the molecular replacement method using the refined saccharide-free LOL I coordinates as starting model. The methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by simulated annealing using the program X-PLOR. The final R-factor value is 0.182 [Fo 〉 1σ(Fo)]. The isostructural methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by X-Ray coupled energy minimization using the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I structure as a starting model to an R factor of 0.179 (all data). In both crystal forms, each dimer binds two molecules of sugar in pockets found near the calcium ions. The two saccharide moieties, which are in the C1 chair conformation, establish the same hydrogen bond pattern with the lectin. However, the van der Walls contacts are different between the O2, C2, C6, and O6 atoms of the two molecules and the backbone atoms of residues 208-211. Mannose, due to its axial C2 conformation, encloses the backbone atoms of the protein in a clamplike way. Van der Waals energy calculations suggest that this better complementarity of the mannoside molecule with the lectin could explain its higher affinity for isolectin I.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4986
    Keywords: Butea frondosa lectin ; sugar specificity ; N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Various monosaccharides and oligosaccharides were used to define the specificity of theButea frondosa lectin using the hapten inhibition technique of human erythrocyte agglutination. AlthoughB. frondosa lectin exhibited higher affinity forN-acetylgalactosamine, lactose andN-acetyllactosamine appeared to be relatively good inhibitors of haemagglutination. The behaviour ofN-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides and glycopeptides on a column ofB. frondosa lectin immobilized on Sepharose 4B showed that the sugar-binding specificity of the lectin is directed towards unmaskedN-acetyllactosamine sequences. Substitution of theseN-acetyllactosamine sequences by sialic acid residues completely abolished the affinity of the lectin for the saccharides. The presence of one or several αFuc(1-3)GlcNAc groups completely inhibited the interaction between the glycopeptides and the lectin. Substitution of the core β-mannose residue by an additional bisecting β(1-4)GlcNAc residue decreases the affinity of the lectin for these structures as compared with the unsubstituted ones.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Jacalin – Lectin –Oryza (salt stress) – Salt stress – Stress protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. A novel plant lectin was isolated from salt-stressed rice (Oryzasativa L.) plants and partially characterized. The lectin occurs as a natural mixture of two closely related isoforms consisting of two identical non-covalently linked subunits of 15 kDa. Both isoforms are best inhibited by mannose and exhibit potent mitogenic activity towards T-lymphocytes. Biochemical analyses and sequence comparisons further revealed that the rice lectins belong to the subgroup of mannose-binding jacalin-related lectins. In addition, it could be demonstrated that the lectins described here correspond to the protein products of previously described salt-stress-induced genes. Our results not only identify the rice lectin as a stress protein but also highlight the possible importance of protein-carbohydrate interactions in stress responses in plants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Fruit lectins – Jacalin – Lectin – Mannose –Musa– Plantain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract.  One of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata L.) and plantains (Musa spp.) has been identified as a lectin. The banana and plantain agglutinins (called BanLec and PlanLec, respectively) were purified in reasonable quantities using a novel isolation procedure, which prevented adsorption of the lectins onto insoluble endogenous polysaccharides. Both BanLec and PlanLec are dimeric proteins composed of two identical subunits of 15 kDa. They readily agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and exhibit specificity towards mannose. Molecular cloning revealed that BanLec has sequence similarity to previously described lectins of the family of jacalin-related lectins, and according to molecular modelling studies has the same overall fold and three-dimensional structure. The identification of BanLec and PlanLec demonstrates the occurrence of jacalin-related lectins in monocot species, suggesting that these lectins are more widespread among higher plants than is actually believed. The banana and plantain lectins are also the first documented examples of jacalin-related lectins, which are abundantly present in the pulp of mature fruits but are apparently absent from other tissues. However, after treatment of intact plants with methyl jasmonate, BanLec is also clearly induced in leaves. The banana lectin is a powerful murine T-cell mitogen. The relevance of the mitogenicity of the banana lectin is discussed in terms of both the physiological role of the lectin and the impact on food safety.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Fruit (protein) –Musa (banana, plantain) – Pathogenesis-related protein – Protein structure – Thaumatin-like protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract.  The pulp of ripe bananas (Musa acuminata) contains an abundant thaumatin-like protein (TLP). Characterization of the protein and molecular cloning of the corresponding gene from banana demonstrated that the native protein consists of a single polypeptide chain of 200 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling further revealed that the banana thaumatin-like protein (Ban-TLP) adopts an overall fold similar to that of thaumatin and thaumatin-like PR-5 proteins. Although the banana protein exhibits an electrostatically polarized surface, which is believed to be essential for the antifungal properties of TLPs, it is apparently devoid of antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungi. It exhibits a low but detectable in vitro endo-β-1,3-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.x) activity. As well as being present in fruits, Ban-TLP also occurs in root tips where its accumulation is enhanced by methyl jasmonate treatment of plants. Pulp of plantains (Musa acuminata) also contains a very similar TLP, which is even more abundant than its banana homologue. Our results demonstrate for the first time that fruit-specific (abundant) TLPs are not confined to dicots but occur also in fruits of monocot species. The possible role of the apparent widespread accumulation of fruit-specific TLPs is discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: bark proteins ; cDNA cloning ; lectin ; Sophora japonica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract cDNA clones encoding the bark and seed lectins from Sophora japonica were isolated and their sequences analyzed. Screening of a cDNA library constructed from polyA RNA isolated from the bark resulted in the isolation of three different lectin cDNA clones. The first clone encodes the GalNAc-specific bark lectin which was originally described by Hankins et al. whereas the other clones encode the two isoforms of the mannose/glucose-specific lectin reported by Ueno et al.. Molecular cloning of the seed lectin genes revealed that Sophora seeds contain only a GalNAc-specific lectin which is highly homologous to though not identical with the GalNAc-specific lectin from the bark. All lectin polypeptides are translated from mRNAs of ca. 1.3 kb encoding a precursor carrying a signal peptide. In the case of the mannose/glucose-specific bark lectins this precursor is post-translationally processed in two smaller peptides. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the different clones revealed striking sequence similarities between the mannose/glucose-binding and the GalNAc-specific lectins. Furthermore, there was a high degree of sequence homology with other legume lectins which allowed molecular modelling of the Sophora lectins using the coordinates of the Pisum sativum, Lathyrus ochrus and Erythrina corallodendron lectins.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Arabidopsis ; genome ; kinase ; lectin ; receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An Arabidopsis cDNA clone that defines a new class of plant serine/threonine receptor kinases was found to be a member of a family of four clustered genes (lecRK-a1–a4) which have been cloned, sequenced and mapped on chromosome 3. This family belongs to a large superfamily encoding putative receptors with an extracellular domain homologous to legume lectins and appears to be conserved at least among dicots. In the Columbia ecotype only the lecRK-a1 and perhaps the lecRK-a3 gene is functional, since lecRK-a2 is disrupted by a Ty-copia retroelement and lecRK-a4 contains a frameshift mutation. Structural analysis of the lecRK-a1 and lecRK-a3 deduced amino-acid sequences suggests that the lectin domain is unlikely to be involved in binding monosaccharides but could interact with complex glycans and/or with hydrophobic ligands. Immunodetection of lecRK gene products in plasma membranes purified by free-flow electrophoresis showed that the lecRK-a proteins are probably highly glycosylated integral plasma membrane components.
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