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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. One of the most prevalent hereditary syndromes associated with colorectal cancer is hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The inherited gene defects in HNPCC have been shown to reside in DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly hMSH2 or hMLH1. Most HNPCC patients are heterozygous with regard to the relevant mismatch repair gene; they have one normal and one mutated allele, and mismatch repair in normal somatic cells is functional. Cancer predisposition in HNPCC is believed to be associated with the loss of the wild-type allele in somatic cells, resulting in defective DNA mismatch repair. This gives rise to DNA microsatellite instability (MSI), an increased somatic mutation rate, and eventually, to the accumulation of mutations in genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. In support of this theory, colorectal tumors in HNPCC patients and in mice deficient for hMSH2 or hMLH1 show MSI. Here, we describe two missense mutations in hMLH1 exon 16 associated with colorectal cancer. Interestingly, the tumors do not show MSI. This raises some potentially important issues. First, even microsatellite-negative colorectal tumors can be associated with germline mutations and these will be missed if an MSI test is used to select patients for mutation screening. Second, the lack of MSI in these cases suggests that the mechanism involved in carcinogenesis could be different from that generally hypothesized.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Rectum – Neoplasms – MR imaging – Ultrasonography – Comparative studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to compare MR imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the local staging of rectal tumours. Forty-nine patients were examined on a 1.5-T MR unit using either a pelvic phased-array coil (n = 37) alone or combined with an endorectal coil (n = 12). Sagittal and axial sequences with T2-weighted fast spin-echo and axial T1-weighted spin-echo techniques were employed. The EUS technique was performed using a flexible endosonoscope. The results were compared with findings at histopathological sectioning of the specimen. The T-stage on MR correlated with histopathology in 32 of 49 patients and on EUS in 29 of 49 patients. The N-stage on MR correlated with histopathology in 22 of 49 patients and on EUS in 26 of 49 patients. Tumour penetration of the rectal wall was predicted by MR with 86 % sensitivity and 65 % specificity, and by EUS with 89 % sensitivity and 33 % specificity. Preoperative radiotherapy was administered to 40 of the patients after the examinations which may explain some of the overstaging by MR and EUS. Three patients with surgically and histopathologically confirmed invasion of neighbouring organs in the pelvis were detected preoperatively on MR but none on EUS. Tumour penetration of the rectal wall and local lymph node metastases cannot accurately be predicted with MR or EUS. Magnetic resonance, however, seems to be more useful for preoperative identification of clinically occult advanced disease.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Cervical carcinogenesis ; Basement membrane ; Immunofluorescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Basement membrane-specific antigens of the squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix were investigated in 19 normal mice, in 7 mice with cervical atypia and in 3 mice with invasive carcinoma. Cervical atypia and carcinoma were induced by local application of benzo(a)pyrene. Basement membrane-specific antigens were demonstrated by immunofluorescence with sera from patients with bullous pemphigoid. Both normal squamous cervical epithelium and atypical cervical epithelium showed the presence of a continuous, clearly delineated basement membrane. Clusters of invasive squamous carcinoma were also surrounded by a fluorescent basement membrane which, however, appear fragmented or discontinuous. The results suggest that the ability of cervical squamous cells to secrete basement membrane antigens is not completely lost during carcinogenesis, thus substantiating our previous observations in the cervix of human subjects.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Small bowel ; Crohn's disease, adenocarcinoma ; Radiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 47-year-old woman with a 15-year history of Crohn's disease (CD) developed an adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. The preoperative diagnosis was suspected on radiologic and endoscopic examination and confirmed histologically.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; Purge-and-trap sampling ; Styrene in olive oil ; Isotopic dilution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new gas chromatographic method using an automatic purge-and-trap system coupled to a GC with mass selective detection to analyze styrene at the parts-per-trillions (ng kg−1) level is described. The method shows a good sensitivity and the detection limit is 10 ng kg−1 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.7% for 164 ng kg−1 styrene in olive oil. This analytical method has been successfully applied to the analysis of styrene in extra-virgin olive oil from the European market.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The gofio is a grain derivate of powdery aspect elaborated using stone milling. For many centuries, this product has served as the main food in the Canary Islands. Thirty-four commercial gofios from the Canary Islands were evaluated by descriptive analysis in order to gain a better sensory knowledge of this product. The sensory profile of gofios seems to be influenced by the type of cereal used. Corn gofios were more influenced by thermal treatment before the milling/grinding. Wheat and mixed-cereal gofios presented a higher homogeneity in their sensory profile with no significant differences. Mixed-cereal gofios were characterized by higher intensities in the vegetative and musty attributes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: GC/MS analysis ; SIM mode ; UV stabilizers ; PET ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7330
    Keywords: aneuploidy ; fluorescent in situ hybridization ; miscarriage ; preimplantation genetic diagnosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: Our purpose was to detect aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 16,18, 21, 22, X, and Y in preimplantation embryos from patients with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Methods: Three patients with a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were included in this study. Embryos were biopsied at the eight-cell stage, individually fixed on slides, and processed for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). A multiple FISH protocol for seven chromosomes pairs (13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y) has been developed. Results: A total of 39 embryos was studied with the multiple FISH protocol developed. Successful analysis of the biopsied embryos was achieved within the time limits usually allowed in a preimplantation diagnosis program. Analysis of the blastomeres showed that 17 embryos were chromosomally normal for the probes used, 16 embryos were aneuploid, and in 6 embryos no informative results were obtained. Conclusions: In the patients studied, a large proportion of embryos (41%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities for the probes used. Preimplantation diagnosis to screen for chromosome abnormalities could be a feasible approach to improve the possibility of successful pregnancy in these couples.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Basement membrane-specific antigens (BMSA) were found by immunofluorescence (IFL) in 20 of 33 tumour samples from patients with squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The BMSA were demonstrated to be unrelated to condensation of both reticulin and subepithelial ground substance (as evidenced by antireticulin IFL antibodies, silver stain and PAS reaction, respectively), the age of the patient, the clinical stage and the histological differentiation of the tumour. The finding that BMSA secreting and non-secreting cervical tumours does not correlate with the degree of differentiation, was somewhat unexpected.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Histopathology 40 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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