Key words Nephrotoxicity
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) are two potent immunosupressants with similar toxicity profile. Nephrotoxicity is the main adverse effect of both compounds. The aim of this study is to compare the in vitro nephrotoxic effects on renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 by measuring cell viability and energy status as evaluated by concentrations of ATP and ATP metabolites. Cell viability (expressed as IC50 was assessed via thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay after incubation for 4–24 h with FK506 or CsA. ATP and its metabolites were determined by HPLC after 4 and 6 h incubation with FK506 or CsA alone at the respective IC50. Both FK506 and CsA decreased cell viability to similar extents, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 4 h incubation, both drugs decreased ATP levels (−25%) and increased uric acid levels. However, the latter percentage increase was twofold higher with CsA (18%) than with FK506 (9%). The energy charge, calculated according to levels of adenine nucleotides, was decreased by 10% in FK506-treated cells and by 27% in CsA-treated cells. At the end of 6-h incubation, FK506-treated cells maintained ATP levels coupled with energy charge at near control levels whereas the levels were 32% lower in CsA treated cells. Compared to the 4 h-incubation, the increase in uric acid was similar for FK506 but was doubled with CsA. The decrease in cell integrity and ATP depletion induced by CsA in LLC-PK1 cells was only transiently observed with FK506. By preserving energy status, FK506 leads to fewer metabolic disturbances than CsA in the renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1, demonstrating a minor potential nephrotoxicity.
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