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  • 1
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a very common comorbidity and major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, especially in people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Nevertheless, studies in the past have shown that blood pressure is often insufficiently controlled in medical practice. For the DIAB-CARE study, we used longitudinal data based on the German DIAB-CORE Consortium to assess whether health care regarding hypertension has improved during the last decade in our participants. METHODS: Data of the three regional population-based studies CARLA (baseline 2002-2006 and follow-up 2007-2010), KORA (baseline 1999-2001 and follow-up 2006-2008) and SHIP (baseline 1997-2001 and follow-up 2002-2006) were pooled. Stratified by T2D status we analysed changes in frequencies, degrees of awareness, treatment and control. Linear mixed models were conducted to assess the influence of sex, age, study, and T2D status on changes of systolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up examinations (mean observation time 5.7 years). We included 4,683 participants aged 45 to 74 years with complete data and accounted for 1,256 participants who were lost to follow-up by inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure decreased in all groups from baseline to follow-up (e.g. - 8.5 mmHg in those with incident T2D). Pulse pressure (PP) was markedly higher in persons with T2D than in persons without T2D (64.14 mmHg in prevalent T2D compared to 52.87 mmHg in non-T2D at baseline) and did not change much between the two examinations. Awareness, treatment and control increased considerably in all subgroups however, the percentage of those with insufficiently controlled hypertension remained high (at about 50% of those with hypertension) especially in prevalent T2D. Particularly elderly people with T2D often had both, high blood pressure 〉/=140/90 mmHg and a PP of 〉/=60 mmHg. Blood pressure in men had improved more than in women at follow-up, however, men still had higher mean SBP than women at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Blood pressure management has developed positively during past years in Germany. While hypertension prevalence, awareness and treatment were substantially higher in participants with T2D than in those without T2D at follow-up, hypertension control was achieved only in about half the number of people in each T2D group leaving much room for further improvement.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26221962
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  • 2
    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  12. Deutscher Kongress für Versorgungsforschung; 20131023-20131025; Berlin; DOCKV13-279 /20131025/
    Publication Date: 2013-10-26
    Keywords: Diabetes ; Selbstmanagement ; Versorgungsqualität ; Mortalität ; ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are often insufficiently controlled in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany. In the current study we evaluated individual characteristics that are assumed to influence the adequate treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia and aimed to identify the patient group with the most urgent need for improved health care. METHODS: The analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project in which cross-sectional data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study, conducted between 1997 and 2006, were pooled. We compared the frequencies of socio-economic and lifestyle factors along with comorbidities in hypertensive participants with or without the blood pressure target of 〈 140/90 mmHg. Similar studies were also performed in participants with dyslipidemia with and without the target of total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio 〈 5. Furthermore, we compared participants who received antihypertensive/lipid lowering treatment with those who were untreated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the odds of potentially influential factors. RESULTS: We included 1287 participants with T2D of whom n = 1048 had hypertension and n = 636 had dyslipidemia. Uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with male sex, low body mass index (BMI), no history of myocardial infarction (MI) and study site. Uncontrolled blood lipid levels were associated with male sex, no history of MI and study site. The odds of receiving no pharmacotherapy for hypertension were significantly greater in men, younger participants, those with BMI 〈 30 kg/m2 and those without previous MI or stroke. Participants with dyslipidemia received lipid lowering medication less frequently if they were male and had not previously had an MI. The more recent studies HNR and CARLA had the greatest numbers of well controlled and treated participants. CONCLUSION: In the DIAB-CORE study, the patient group with the greatest odds of uncontrolled co-morbidities and no pharmacotherapy was more likely comprised of younger men with low BMI and no history of cardiovascular disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23035799
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  • 4
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although most deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are attributable to cardiovascular disease, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors appear to be inadequately treated in medical practice. The aim of this study was to describe hypertension, dyslipidemia and medical treatment of these conditions in a large population-based sample. METHODS: The present analysis was based on the DIAB-CORE project, in which data from five regional population-based studies and one nationwide German study were pooled. All studies were conducted between 1997 and 2006. We assessed the frequencies of risk factors and co-morbidities, especially hypertension and dyslipidemia, in participants with and without T2D. The odds of no or insufficient treatment and the odds of pharmacotherapy were computed using multivariable logistic regression models. Types of medication regimens were described. RESULTS: The pooled data set comprised individual data of 15, 071 participants aged 45-74 years, including 1287 (8.5%) participants with T2D. Subjects with T2D were significantly more likely to have untreated or insufficiently treated hypertension, i.e. blood pressure of 〉 = 140/90 mmHg (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.26-1.61) and dyslipidemia i.e. a total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio 〉 = 5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.59-2.04) than participants without T2D. Untreated or insufficiently treated blood pressure was observed in 48.9% of participants without T2D and in 63.6% of participants with T2D. In this latter group, 28.0% did not receive anti-hypertensive medication and 72.0% were insufficiently treated. In non-T2D participants, 28.8% had untreated or insufficiently treated dyslipidemia. Of all participants with T2D 42.5% had currently elevated lipids, 80.3% of these were untreated and 19.7% were insufficiently treated. CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure and lipid management fall short especially in persons with T2D across Germany. The importance of sufficient risk factor control besides blood glucose monitoring in diabetes care needs to be emphasized in order to prevent cardiovascular sequelae and premature death.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22569118
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