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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 6 (1994), S. 277-282 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: D-amino acids ; D-glutamate ; monosodium glutamate ; food analysis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is added to many processed foods at significant levels for flavor enhancement. It is also naturally occurring at high levels in some foods. The enantiomeric composition of free glutamate in foods was examined and all foods analyzed were found to contain D-glutamate. The relative percent of D-glutamate in the food products studied depended on the origin of the glutamate. Foods to which MSG was added by the manufacturer had a high total level of MSG but a lower relative percentage of the D-enantiomer (usually less than 0.8%). In comparison, fermented foods tend to have high relative levels of D-glutamate but a lower total amount of the amino acid. The relative percent of D-glutamate in nonfermented foods containing no added MSG was also found to be low compared to fermented products. In some cases the percent D-glutamate could be related to the relative amounts of other food ingredients such as cheese. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiomeric separations ; macrocyclic antibiotics capillary electrophoresis ; vancomycin ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vancomycin is one of a family of related macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics that were discovered by scientists at the Eli Lilly Company in the 1950s. It has been used to treat severe staphylococcal infections, particularly when bacterial resistance to other antibiotics has developed. Vancomycin is a naturally occurring chiral compound and has a number of stereogenic centers. Furthermore, it contains a variety of functionalities that are known to be useful for enantioselective interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding groups, hydrophobic pockets, aromatic groups, amide linkages, etc.). The physicochemical properties of vancomycin, including its stability in solution, are discussed as they pertain to capillary electrophoresis. Over 100 racemates were resolved including many nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, antineoplastic compounds and N-derivatized amino acids. Many of these compounds had very high resolution factors. Optimization and the effect of different experimental parameters on the enantioselective separations are discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Electrophoresis 18 (1997), S. 2194-2202 
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Equilibrium constants ; Molecular association ; Linear plotting ; Nonlinear regression ; Errors ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has developed into a particularly effective means to determine apparent equilibrium constants for molecular association in solution (e.g., to micelles, cyclodextrins, antibiotics, proteins, RNA, DNA. etc.). The various experimental, graphical and mathematical approaches for determining association constants are reviewed. In CE, association constants can be calculated because there is a relationship between substrate concentration and the measured electrophoretic mobility of the solute. Most of the approaches for obtaining association constants by CE are conceptually and mathematically related to one another. Likewise, they are analogous to many spectroscopic techniques that are used for obtaining association constants. The advantages, limitations and proper use of the various CE approaches are examined.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: teicoplanin ; glycopeptide antibiotics ; capillary electrophoresis ; enantioselectivity ; separation ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Teicoplanin is the third in a series of macrocyclic glycopeptide antibiotics that has been evaluated as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis (CE). It was used to resolve over 100 anionic racemates at low selector concentrations. Like the other related glycopeptide antibiotics, its enantioselectivity tends to be opposite to that of the ansa-type antibiotics which prefers cationic compounds, particularly amines. Factors that affect teicoplanin-based enantioseparations include the selector concentration, pH, and the concentration of the organic modifier. The temperature and the nature and strength of the buffer are also known-to affect the stability of the chiral selector as well as the enantioseparation. Teicoplanin exhibited some features that were not noted with the other glycopeptide antibiotics. For example, it aggregates (forms micelles) in aqueous solutions and this influences its enantioselectivity. Unlike the other studied glycopeptides, teicoplanin precipitates in alcohol-water mixtures. It also binds less to the capillary wall than vancomycin as evidenced by the faster electroosmotic flow velocity. The micellization of teicoplanin is pH dependent so that the effect of pH on enantiorecognition is more complex for teicoplanin than for other chiral selectors. Also it is shown that the simple model proposed to explain the role of organic modifiers in cyclodextrin-based CE enantioseparations may not apply to these and other systems. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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