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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Expression of the nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1/Ad4BP), was studied in a primate (marmoset) ovary using immunohistochemical, RT-PCR, and immunoblot techniques. The periovulatory phase was compared with the luteal phase. With PCR we found a marmoset homolog of SF-1/Ad4BP to be expressed in ovarian and other steroidogenic tissues. Characteristically, the periovulatory ovaries consisted of growing (non-luteinized) small follicles together with large luteinizing follicles and many corpora lutea accessoria (Clas), which had developed from atretic large follicles. During the luteal phase, true corpora lutea (Cls) were additionally found. In general, we found that small follicles were devoid of any immunoreactivity of SF-1/Ad4BP. In large follicles, the luteinizing theca and granulosa cells express SF-1/Ad4BP. All luteal cells of Clas showed a nuclear staining in both ovary types. In Cls, only a few luteal cells were positive. Large follicles of different sizes showed no differences in expression level, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis. Our results indicate that SF-1/Ad4BP participates in the activation of gene transcription during the onset of luteinization and that Clas are essential for ovarian luteal function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] An invading pathogen must be held in check by the innate immune system until a specific immune response can be mounted. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, the principal stimulator of the innate immune system is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the bacterial outer membrane. In vitro, ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) ; Testis ; Number of spermatids ; NOAEL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of a single dose of TCDD on the testis were studied in rats. The animals were treated (subcutaneously) once with TCDD doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 μg/kg body weight. Doses of 3.0 or 5.0 μg TCDD/kg reduced the number of spermatids/testis significantly (60% of the controls). Electron microscopic inspection revealed that both doses led to a dissolution on the germinal epithelium. Altered germ cells at all developmental stages occurred in all testes evaluated. Doses of 0.5 or 1.0 μg TCDD/kg did not induce any effects in the testis; therefore, under these experimental conditions of single exposure to rats the dose of 1.0 μg TCDD/kg can be considered as NOAEL.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Subcortical regions such as the medial septum–diagonal band of Broca and supramammillary area have been shown to mediate indirect oestrogenic effects on hippocampal morphology and function. Here, the role of the median raphe (MR), a serotonergic subcortical structure, is studied. To this end, 17β-estradiol-filled 30-gauge cannulae were implanted into the MR of female ovariectomized rats; cholesterol-filled cannulae served as controls. After seven days, using unbiased electron microscopic stereological calculations and semiquantitative analysis, the spine synapse density and surface density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocyte processes, respectively, were determined in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Changes in the serotonergic innervation of the hippocampal CA1 region were determined by immunohistochemistry and subsequent morphometric analysis. In the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region, local estradiol application into the MR resulted in a 47% increase in spine synapse density. Simultaneously, the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive fibers decreased by 16%. The density of serotonin (5-HT) innervation of the strata lacunosum moleculare and radiatum of the CA1 region of the hippocampus was reduced in response to estradiol, as shown by a decrease in the length of fibers (27.6 and 48.3% decrease, respectively) and the number of large varicosities (32.5 and 38.8% decrease, respectively). These observations suggest a major role of the MR in mediating oestrogenic effects on the hippocampus and an involvement of the serotonergic system.
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