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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 242 Patienten über 16 Jahre mit einer im ambulanten Bereich erworbenen Infektion der unteren Luftwege, die nach Alter und Geschlecht entsprechend erfaßt wurden, erhielten randomisiert 7 Tage lang zwei mal täglich 150 mg Roxithromycin oder drei mal täglich Amoxycillin 500 mg/Clavulansäure 125 mg. Bei unzureichendem Erfolg noch weitere 7 Tage. Klinisch wirksam erwiesen sich bei Roxithromycin 69% und 56% bei Amoxycillin/Clavulansäure (p=0.05), bei Abschluß der Studie waren es 91% bei beiden Präparaten. Weniger Zweitbehandlungen waren bei der Roxithromycin-Gruppe erforderlich, sowie eine kürzere Behandlungsdauer (8,29 Tage vs. 9,34 Tage, p〉0,05). 12 Patienten, die mit Roxithromycin behandelt wurden und 19 Patienten mit Amoxycillin/Clavulansäure hatten Nebenerscheinungen, die möglicherweise oder wahrscheinlich auf die Antibiotika bezogen werden könnten. Roxithromycin erscheint für LRTI im ambulanten Bereich eine geeignetere Behandlung zu sein als Amoxycillin/Clavulansäure. Es erreicht ein breiteresin vitro-Spektrum, eine größere Wirksamkeit gegenüber den vorkommenden Erregern, eine bessere Kosten-Nutzen Relation, eine einfachere Behandlungsform (b.i.d.) sowie eine bessere Verträglichkeit.
    Notes: Summary Two hundred and forty-two patients over 16 years of age with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), matched for age and sex, were randomised to receive either roxithromycin 150 mg b.i.d. or amoxycillin 500 mg/clavulanic acid 125 mg t.i.d. for 7 days, with a further 7 days if insufficient response was seen. Clinical efficacy at 7 days was 69% for roxithromycin and 56% for amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (p=0.05) and at study end it was 91% for both antibiotics. There were fewer second treatment courses in the roxithromycin group (26% vs. 38%, p=0.04) and a shorter treatment duration (8.29 days vs. 9.34 days, p〉0.05). Twelve patients (9.8%) treated with roxithromycin and 19 (17.1%) treated with amoxycillin/clavulanic acid had adverse effects possibly, or probably, related to the antibiotic. Roxithromycin appears to be a more appropriate choice than amoxycillin/clavulanic acid for the treatment of LRTI in the community given its more appropriatein vitro spectrum, efficacy against most common and atypical pathogens, greater cost-effectiveness, more convenient dosage regimen (b.i.d.), and superior tolerability profile.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Precessions of the 2 1 + states in198Pt and192Os have been measured in the enhanced transient hyperfine magnetic field acting on these nuclei as they recoiled through thin polarized cobalt foils. Two separate targets consisting of contiguous layers of198Pt and192Os electrodeposited on ∼1 μm and ∼4 μm Co foils were employed. The levels of interest were Coulomb excited by 80 MeV32S and 220 MeV58Ni beams and the precessions of the 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distributions in both nuclides were measured simultaneously. The results of these studies are compared with recently reported similar studies in which ions of188Os and194Pt recoiled through thin polarized Fe foils. It is concluded that (i) the transient field acting on Pt in Fe is singularly anomalous, and (ii) the recent contention that the g-factors of the 2 1 + states in the event Pt isotopes may be substantially lower than had been reported in the literature cannot be sustained. This transient field discontinuity is examined in terms of possible molecular orbital electron vacancy sharing between Pt and Fe.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 12 (1993), S. 197-203 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: An overview is presented of the currently studied microwave-assisted chemical and physical processes, as they pertain to polymers. Furthermore, the features which affect the microwave heating of polymers are described. Finally, some of the factors which have limited more widespread acceptance of microwave processing of polymeric materials are highlighted. © 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Trypsin ; Inhibitor ; Protein-Structure ; X-Ray Analysis ; Enzyme Substrate Interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The structure of the complex between anhydro-trypsin and pancreatic trypsin inhibitor has been determined by difference Fourier techniques using phases obtained from the native complex (Huber et al., 1974). It was refined independently by constrained crystallographic refinement at 1.9 å resolution. The anhydro-complex has Ser 195 converted to dehydro-alanine. There were no other significant structural changes. In particular, the high degree of pyramidalization of the C atom of Lys 15 (I) of the inhibitor component observed in the native complex is maintained in the anhydro-species.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Ethanol ; Serotonin ; Delayed reinforcement ; Self-control ; Impulsivity ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Tolerance to delay of reinforcement has been proposed as an important facet of self-control in both animals and man. Poor self-control, leading to impulsive behaviour, can be a major problem if it reaches pathological levels. Objectives: The effects of five serotonergic drugs were compared to those of ethanol on a procedure for measuring tolerance to delay of reinforcement in rats in order to elucidate further the role of the serotonin systems in the regulation of impulsive behaviour. Methods: Rats were trained to choose between a single food pellet (small reinforcer) delivered immediately or five food pellets (large reinforcer) delivered after programmed delays. At the start of each session, there was no delay between the response and delivery of the large reinforcer, but this was increased stepwise during the session to delays of 10, 20, 40 and 60 s. Results: The rats showed consistent preference for the larger reinforcer when it was not delayed but showed a shift in preference as the session continued, so that they preferred the small reinforcer when the large was delayed by 40 or 60 s. Ethanol at a dose of 1.0 g/kg produced a significance increase in preference for the small, immediate reinforcer throughout the session, although there were marked individual differences in the size of the effect. A similar, but somewhat smaller effect was seen with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI, at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg. In contrast, the 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg) reduced preference for the large reinforcer at the start of the session, and reduced preference for the small reinforcer at the end of the session, i.e. produced a regression to indifference. Lower doses of these three drugs, and treatment with the 5-HT receptor subtype selective antagonists WAY-100635 (5-HT1A: 0.01–0.1 mg/kg), ritanserin (5-HT2: 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) and MDL-72222 (5-HT3: 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) had no significant effects on reinforcer choice. Conclusion: These data show that ethanol and DOI increase preference for the immediate reinforcer, which can be construed as evidence of an increase in impulsive behaviour (reduction in self control), whereas selective blockade of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors using selective antagonists does not affect self-control.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Burn patients — Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Prolonged enteral feedings are required occasionally in seriously burned individuals. We have employed percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in selected patients who require particularly prolonged access, thus prompting this review. Methods: The PEG procedure was performed under general anesthesia in combination with another surgical procedure using a variety of commercially available needle and guidewire kits in 14 patients. Results: These 14 patients had an average age of 55.2 ± 6.6 years and a burn involving 38 ± 8% of the body surface. Eleven of these patients had suffered an inhalation injury. The tubes were placed an average of 57 ± 10.5 days after injury through unburned and unharvested skin in four patients (28%), healed donor sites in five patients (35%), healed burn in one patient (1%), and grafted burn in four patients (28%). One patient, whose catheter was placed through a grafted fascial excision, developed moderate local wound erosion. Tubes were known to have been left in place as long as 155 days. However, most were removed in rehabilitation hospitals, and we were unable to determine how long most were left in place. We are unaware of any problems with the tubes occurring after discharge from the acute care setting. Conclusions: In selected patients, PEG can provide more comfortable access for prolonged enteral feedings than nasogastric tubes and can be placed with minimal morbidity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopy of leaves of tomato has shown that tissue containing chymotrypsin inhibitor I protein has protein in the cell vacuoles. The vacuolar protein was found either as many small bodies or as few large bodies. The data indicate that the vacuole is a temporary storage site for protein which may play an important role in growth and development of the plant. This strongly suggests that the plant-cell vacuole is something more than a site for terminal deposition of waste products. The system offers an unusual opportunity to study the biochemistry and ultrastructure of synthesis, vacuolar deposition, and recall of a well-characterized plant protein.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Protein bodies induced in tomato leaf cells by wounding were shown to contain proteinase Inhibitor I by using ferritin-labelled antibodies, fluorescein-labelled antibodies, and cytochrome C-labelled antibody fragments. Both pre-embedding and postembedding techniques were used. Nonspecific binding was least when p-formaldehyde was used as the initial fixative followed by treatment with cytochrome c-labelled antibody fragments.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Serotonin agonist ; 8-OH-DPAT ; Flesinoxan ; Ipsapirone ; Buspirone ; Haloperidol ; Active avoidance ; Rats ; Repeated treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behavioural effects of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) agonist anxiolytics are generally examined after acute administration. The present study examined the effects of these substances during repeated treatment in the two-way active avoidance (Conditioned Avoidance Response, CAR) procedure. Previously it has been found that the prototypical 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, increases avoidance, apparently by increasing general activity, after repeated administration but not on acute administration. In the present study, it was demonstrated that this increase in activity can be blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists (−)alprenolol (also beta adrenergic antagonist) and (S)-UH-301, but not by the non-selective 5-HT antagonist metergoline. The relatively full 5-HT1A agonist, flesinoxan, and the partial 5-HT1A agonist, ipsapirone, had qualitatively similar effects to 8-OH-DPAT, although the effect of ipsapirone was clearly smaller in magnitude. Buspirone, the 5-HT1A partial agonist/dopamine D2 antagonist, markedly decreased activity, and thus avoidance of the shocks, in a manner similar to the antipsychotic drug, haloperidol. However, when the hypothermic effects of these compounds were investigated after acute administration, buspirone induced a strong hypothermic response in rats, like 8-OH-DPAT, whereas haloperidol had no effect. With the exception of buspirone, the effectiveness of these compounds in increasing activity in the CAR test appears to be related to their agonist efficacy at the 5-HT1A receptor. Similarities between the effects of these compounds and previously reported results with serotonin-depleting agents (Tenen 1967; Breese et al. 1974) suggest that the net effect of 5-HT1A agonists after repeated administration is to produce a functional reduction in 5-HT activity. The activity suppressing action of buspirone indicates that the dopamine antagonist activity of buspirone predominates in this procedure.
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