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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9834
    Keywords: Climatic change ; eco-hydrology ; evapotranspiration ; soil moisture ; water resource problems ; Poland
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The impact of climatic change on variables of concern to eco-hydrology was examined. Long time series of records of temperature, precipitation and river flow for Poznan were analyzed and forecasts of tendencies were made. Spatial distribution of runoff and of the ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation was obtained for the country. It was found likely that the dynamics of the hydrological cycle will accelerate. Annual precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration will increase. The joint effect, including estimated growth in water demand, is likely to be a decrease in the amount of soil moisture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: agricultural landscape ; evapotranspiration ; ground water flux ; meadows ; non-point pollution ; shelterbelts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Long-term studies of the influence of biogeochemical barriers (shelterbelts and stretches of meadows) on water cycling and control of ground water pollution in an agricultural landscape have shown that more solar energy is used for evapotranspiration in shelterbelts than in cultivated fields or meadows. Therefore, annual water runoff from cultivated fields is about 170% higher than from coniferous forest, 60% higher than deciduous forest and 16% higher than meadows. The differences in evapotranspiration rates between shelterbelts and meadows increases when additional energy input for evapotranspiration is provided by transport of heat from cultivated fields to these habitats by advection. The average water percolation time through the unsaturated zone of soils varies by 100%. A shelterbelt, having a mixed species composition, more effectively screens the passage of chemical compounds dissolved in ground water than shelterbelts composed of one tree species. Peat soils have a very high cation exchange capacity which increases the efficiency of riparian meadows for the control of ground water pollution. Natural landscape features which assist in controlling matter cycles are of great importance for modifying chemical outputs from agricultural watersheds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: energy flow ; water cycling ; evapotranspiration ; primary production ; albedo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In long term studies the following climatological characteristics were measured or calculated: air and soil temperature, sunshine, wind speed, vapor pressure, saturation deficit, precipitation, humidity, incoming and reflected solar energy, energy emitted by active surfaces and primary production. Taking into account the relationships between climatological characteristics, the growth stages of vegetation, and relations between heat balance components, the fluxes of energy used for evapotranspiration, air, and soil heating were estimated in various ecosystems composing the agricultural landscape. The energy contained in biomass production of various crops was estimated also. Aggregate estimates of energy flow connected with evapotranspiration, and soil and air heating were calculated for eight model landscapes which differed by the plant cover structure. A higher variability of energy fluxes was observed for individual ecosystems than for agricultural land-scapes. It was shown that the structure of the plant cover has an important bearing on energy flow and water cycling both by direct and indirect influences. Shelterbelts are especially important in their influence on energy flow and water cycling.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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