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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-13
    Description: A critical assumption underlying projections of biodiversity change associated with global warming is that ecological communities comprise balanced mixes of warm-affinity and cool-affinity species which, on average, approximate local environmental temperatures. Nevertheless, here we find that most shallow water marine species occupy broad thermal distributions that are aggregated in either temperate or tropical realms. These distributional trends result in ocean-scale spatial thermal biases, where communities are dominated by species with warmer or cooler affinity than local environmental temperatures. We use community-level thermal deviations from local temperatures as a form of sensitivity to warming, and combine these with projected ocean warming data to predict warming-related loss of species from present-day communities over the next century. Large changes in local species composition appear likely, and proximity to thermal limits, as inferred from present-day species' distributional ranges, outweighs spatial variation in warming rates in contributing to predicted rates of local species loss.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stuart-Smith, Rick D -- Edgar, Graham J -- Barrett, Neville S -- Kininmonth, Stuart J -- Bates, Amanda E -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 3;528(7580):88-92. doi: 10.1038/nature16144. Epub 2015 Nov 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. ; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kraftriket Stockholm, 2B, SE-106 91, Sweden. ; Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26560025" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization/physiology ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; *Biodiversity ; Coral Reefs ; Fishes/physiology ; Geographic Mapping ; *Global Warming ; Invertebrates/physiology ; Phylogeny ; Seasons ; *Seawater ; Species Specificity ; *Temperature ; Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-07
    Description: In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (〉10 years), large (〉100 km(2)), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (〉250 mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Edgar, Graham J -- Stuart-Smith, Rick D -- Willis, Trevor J -- Kininmonth, Stuart -- Baker, Susan C -- Banks, Stuart -- Barrett, Neville S -- Becerro, Mikel A -- Bernard, Anthony T F -- Berkhout, Just -- Buxton, Colin D -- Campbell, Stuart J -- Cooper, Antonia T -- Davey, Marlene -- Edgar, Sophie C -- Forsterra, Gunter -- Galvan, David E -- Irigoyen, Alejo J -- Kushner, David J -- Moura, Rodrigo -- Parnell, P Ed -- Shears, Nick T -- Soler, German -- Strain, Elisabeth M A -- Thomson, Russell J -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):216-20. doi: 10.1038/nature13022. Epub 2014 Feb 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-49, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. ; Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth PO4 9LY, UK. ; 1] Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252-49, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia [2] Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Kraftriket 2B, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. ; School of Plant Science, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. ; Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador. ; The Bites Lab, Natural Products and Agrobiology Institute (IPNA-CSIC), 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. ; Elwandle Node, South African Environmental Observation network, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa. ; Wildlife Conservation Society, Indonesia Marine Program, Jalan Atletik No. 8, Bogor Jawa Barat 16151, Indonesia. ; Department of Water, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia. ; Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso, Chile. ; Centro Nacional Patagonico, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Bvd Brown 2915, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina. ; Channel Islands National Park, United States National Park Service, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, California 93001, USA. ; Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil. ; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, Mail Code 0227, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0227, USA. ; Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, 160 Goat Island Road, Leigh 0985, New Zealand. ; Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali, Universita di Bologna, Via San Alberto, Ravenna 163-48123, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24499817" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/physiology ; Biodiversity ; Biomass ; Conservation of Natural Resources/economics/legislation & ; jurisprudence/methods/*statistics & numerical data ; Coral Reefs ; Ecology/economics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods/*statistics & numerical ; data ; *Ecosystem ; Fisheries/legislation & jurisprudence/standards/*statistics & numerical data ; Fishes/*physiology ; Marine Biology/economics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods/statistics & ; numerical data ; Seawater ; Sharks ; Silicon Dioxide ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: Targeting EIF4E signaling with ribavirin in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia Targeting EIF4E signaling with ribavirin in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Published online: 26 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0567-7 Targeting EIF4E signaling with ribavirin in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Print ISSN: 0950-9232
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: A tension-mediated glycocalyx–integrin feedback loop promotes mesenchymal-like glioblastoma A tension-mediated glycocalyx–integrin feedback loop promotes mesenchymal-like glioblastoma, Published online: 10 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0183-3 Barnes et al. report a dynamic and reciprocal crosstalk between tissue tension and glycocalyx bulkiness that promotes a mesenchymal, stem-like phenotype in GBM.
    Print ISSN: 1465-7392
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4679
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-23
    Description: Influenza antiviral agents play important roles in modulating disease severity and in controlling pandemics while vaccines are prepared, but the development of resistance to agents like the commonly used neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir may limit their future utility. We report here on a new class of specific, mechanism-based anti-influenza drugs that function through the formation of a stabilized covalent intermediate in the influenza neuraminidase enzyme, and we confirm this mode of action with structural and mechanistic studies. These compounds function in cell-based assays and in animal models, with efficacies comparable to that of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir and with broad-spectrum activity against drug-resistant strains in vitro. The similarity of their structure to that of the natural substrate and their mechanism-based design make these attractive antiviral candidates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jin-Hyo -- Resende, Ricardo -- Wennekes, Tom -- Chen, Hong-Ming -- Bance, Nicole -- Buchini, Sabrina -- Watts, Andrew G -- Pilling, Pat -- Streltsov, Victor A -- Petric, Martin -- Liggins, Richard -- Barrett, Susan -- McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L -- Niikura, Masahiro -- Withers, Stephen G -- G0600514/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232552. Epub 2013 Feb 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429702" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antiviral Agents/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dogs ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Humans ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Neuraminidase/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry ; Orthomyxoviridae/*drug effects/enzymology ; Oseltamivir/chemistry/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Sialic Acids/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Zanamivir/chemistry/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scheffer, M -- Barrett, S -- Carpenter, S R -- Folke, C -- Green, A J -- Holmgren, M -- Hughes, T P -- Kosten, S -- van de Leemput, I A -- Nepstad, D C -- van Nes, E H -- Peeters, E T H M -- Walker, B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 20;347(6228):1317-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3769.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. marten.scheffer@wur.nl. ; School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. ; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, SE104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Estacion Biologica de Donana, EBD-CSIC, 41092 Sevilla, Spain. ; Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. ; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. ; Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute of Water and Wetland Research, 6525 AJ Nijmegen,Netherlands. ; Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands. ; Earth Innovation Institute, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. ; CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Coral Reefs ; *Forests ; *Greenhouse Effect ; *Wetlands
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: Sterile alpha motif and HD-domain–containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) blocks replication of retroviruses and certain DNA viruses by reducing the intracellular dNTP pool. SAMHD1 has been suggested to down-regulate IFN and inflammatory responses to viral infections, although the functions and mechanisms of SAMHD1 in modulating innate immunity remain unclear. Here, we...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are expressed during early life and therefore metabolize endogenous and xenobiotic chemicals during development. Little is currently known about the regulation of individual SULTs in the developing human liver. We characterized SULT expression in primary cultures of human fetal hepatocytes and the HepaRG model of liver cell differentiation. SULT1A1 (transcript variants 1–4), SULT1C2, SULT1C4, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1 were the most abundant transcripts in human fetal hepatocytes. In HepaRG cells, SULT1B1, SULT1C2/3/4, and SULT1E1 mRNA levels increased during the transition from proliferation to confluency and then decreased as the cells underwent further differentiation. By contrast, SULT2A1 mRNA levels increased during differentiation, whereas SULT1A1 and SULT2B1 mRNA levels remained relatively constant. The temporal patterns of SULT1C2, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1 protein content were consistent with those observed at the mRNA level. To identify regulators of SULT expression, cultured fetal hepatocytes and HepaRG cells were treated with a panel of lipid- and xenobiotic-sensing receptor activators. The following effects were observed in both fetal hepatocytes and HepaRG cells: 1) liver X receptor activator treatment increased SULT1A1 transcript variant 5 levels; 2) vitamin D receptor activator treatment increased SULT1C2 and SULT2B1 mRNA levels; and 3) farnesoid X receptor activator treatment decreased SULT2A1 expression. Activators of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors produced additional gene-dependent effects on SULT expression in HepaRG cells. These findings suggest that SULT-regulating chemicals have the potential to modulate physiologic processes and susceptibility to xenobiotic stressors in the developing human liver.
    Print ISSN: 0090-9556
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-009X
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Trimorphic incompatibility ; Pontederia cordata L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), a perennial diploid, possesses the rare genetic polymorphism tristyly. A controlled pollination programme was conducted over a three year period, under glasshouse conditions, on 36 clones of P. cordata var. cordata to examine the nature of the self-incompatibility system. The three major findings of the pollination study were: (1) the three floral morphs display different levels of self-incompatibility, (2) pollen from the two anther levels within a flower exhibits different compatibility behaviour in self-pollinations, (3) considerable individual genetic variation in the expression of self-incompatibility is evident among clones within floral morphs. Similar results were also obtained from a smaller study on 15 clones of P. cordata var. lancifolia conducted over a 6 month period. In common with other Pontederia species the mid-styled morph (M) of P. cordata produces large amounts of seed when self-pollinated with pollen from long-level anthers. A developmental model is proposed to explain the high level of self-compatibility of the M morph in Pontederia species. Self-pollination of segregating progenies from M and S morphs of known incompatibility status demonstrated that the expression of incompatibility is closely associated with style length. It is suggested that overall differences in incompatibility behaviour among the floral morphs may be due to the pleiotropic effects of major genes controlling sub-characters of the tristylous syndrome, rather than linked modifier genes. However, the variable expression of trimorphic incompatibility within floral morphs suggests that this variation may be polygenic in origin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Pollen-pistil interference ; Prior self-pollination ; Tristyly ; Self-incompatibility Stylar senescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The potential inhibitory effects of incompatible pollen on outcrossed seed set were investigated in mass-flowering, self-incompatible, tristylous Pontederia sagittata. Prior application of self pollen, followed after 2, 4, or 6 h by compatible pollen, was conducted on five genotypes of each of the three style morphs under uniform glasshouse conditions. The greatest reductions in seed set occurred in pollinations of the long-styled (L) morph at the 6 h time interval. Smaller reductions were also found for this treatment in the mid-styled (M) morph. No significant reductions in seed set were observed in the short-styled (S) morph or in the other morphs at shorter time intervals. Observations of pollen germination and pollen tube growth indicated that the lack of inhibitory effects in the S morph may occur because relatively few pollen grains adhered to stigmas in selfpollinations. In the L and M morphs, early germination of self pollen may cause physical clogging of the stigma and style, resulting in a reduced number of compatible pollen tubes in styles. Observations of the structural integrity of styles indicated that prior germination of self pollen resulted in more rapid onset of pistil senescence, particularly in the L morph. These influences may contribute to the morph-specific differences in seed set observed following prior self-pollination of outcrossed flowers. The negative effects of incompatible pollen are likely to be most evident where ecological factors cause delays in the delivery of outcross pollen to stigmas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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