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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-beta peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Abeta42 and Abeta40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex traits.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050701/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cruchaga, Carlos -- Karch, Celeste M -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Benitez, Bruno A -- Cai, Yefei -- Guerreiro, Rita -- Harari, Oscar -- Norton, Joanne -- Budde, John -- Bertelsen, Sarah -- Jeng, Amanda T -- Cooper, Breanna -- Skorupa, Tara -- Carrell, David -- Levitch, Denise -- Hsu, Simon -- Choi, Jiyoon -- Ryten, Mina -- UK Brain Expression Consortium -- Hardy, John -- Trabzuni, Daniah -- Weale, Michael E -- Ramasamy, Adaikalavan -- Smith, Colin -- Sassi, Celeste -- Bras, Jose -- Gibbs, J Raphael -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Lupton, Michelle K -- Powell, John -- Forabosco, Paola -- Ridge, Perry G -- Corcoran, Christopher D -- Tschanz, Joann T -- Norton, Maria C -- Munger, Ronald G -- Schmutz, Cameron -- Leary, Maegan -- Demirci, F Yesim -- Bamne, Mikhil N -- Wang, Xingbin -- Lopez, Oscar L -- Ganguli, Mary -- Medway, Christopher -- Turton, James -- Lord, Jenny -- Braae, Anne -- Barber, Imelda -- Brown, Kristelle -- Alzheimer's Research UK Consortium -- Passmore, Peter -- Craig, David -- Johnston, Janet -- McGuinness, Bernadette -- Todd, Stephen -- Heun, Reinhard -- Kolsch, Heike -- Kehoe, Patrick G -- Hooper, Nigel M -- Vardy, Emma R L C -- Mann, David M -- Pickering-Brown, Stuart -- Kalsheker, Noor -- Lowe, James -- Morgan, Kevin -- David Smith, A -- Wilcock, Gordon -- Warden, Donald -- Holmes, Clive -- Pastor, Pau -- Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo -- Brkanac, Zoran -- Scott, Erick -- Topol, Eric -- Rogaeva, Ekaterina -- Singleton, Andrew B -- Kamboh, M Ilyas -- St George-Hyslop, Peter -- Cairns, Nigel -- Morris, John C -- Kauwe, John S K -- Goate, Alison M -- 081864/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089703/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 100140/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1R01AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- 5U24AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG023652/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG07562/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- G0802189/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802462/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901254/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1100695/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 AG046374/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- MC_G1000734/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- NIH P50 AG05681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- NIH R01039700/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AG003991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG026276/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG03991/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-NS069329/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005133/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG005681/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG030653/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG039700/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041718/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG041797/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG035083/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG042611/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG044546/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG11380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG18712/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01-AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG21136/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R25 DA027995/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG021886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24 AG026395/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U24AG21886/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- WT089698/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- ZIA AG000950-11/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZO1 AG000950-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- ZO1AG000950-11/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):550-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12825. Epub 2013 Dec 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3]. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2]. ; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK [2] Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. ; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF UK. ; MRC Sudden Death Brain Bank Project, University of Edinburgh, South Bridge, Edinburgh EH8 9YL UK. ; 1] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK [2] Neuroimaging Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia. ; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; Istituto di Genetica delle Popolazioni - CNR, Trav. La Crucca, 3 - Reg. Baldinca - 07100 Li Punti, Sassari, Italy. ; Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA. ; 1] Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Psychology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [3] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; 1] Department of Family Consumer and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA [2] Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Human Genetics, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. ; Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK. ; Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby, DE22 3NE, UK. ; University of Bonn, Regina-Pacis-Weg 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany. ; University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, City of Bristol BS8 1TH, UK. ; University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, UK. ; University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear NE1 7RU, UK. ; University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PL, UK. ; University of Oxford (OPTIMA), Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; 1] Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain [2] Department of Neurology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra Avenida Pio XII, 36. 31008 Pamplona, Spain [3] CIBERNED, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. ; Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neurosciences, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55. 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. ; University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104-2499, USA. ; The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 3344 North Torrey Pines Court, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Building 35 Room 1A1014, 35 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [3] Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; 1] Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 60 Leonard Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada [2] Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. ; 1] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [2] Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [3] Department of Neurology, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [4] Knight ADRC, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA [5] Department of Genetics, Washington University, 425 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Age of Onset ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Alzheimer Disease/*genetics/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism ; Brain/metabolism ; Case-Control Studies ; Europe/ethnology ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Phospholipase D/deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational/genetics ; Proteolysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une nouvelle méthode d'insertion de tube oesophagien est proposée. Chez les malades qui présentent des tumeurs oesophagiennes sténosantes inopérables, l'introduction du tube au travers du cancer a pour but de supprimer la dysphagie et la salivation. La technique consiste d'abord à dilater le défilé tumoral par l'appareil de Eder-Puestow puis à introduire correctement le tube sous contrôle endoscopique. 28 malades ont bénéficié de l'introduction d'un tube dit de Célestin. La méthode n'est grevée que de rares complications. Elle représente une alternative aux méthodes chirurgicales d'introduction d'un tube endo-oesophagien.
    Notes: Abstract A new method for inserting endoesophageal tubes is described. In patients with stenosing, inoperable esophageal malignancies, a passage through the neoplastic masses must be secured to avoid dysphagia and salivation. By first dilating the tumor lumen with the Eder-Puestow apparatus and then inserting the correctly cut tube using endoscopic equipment, an operation can be avoided. In 28 patients, a Celestin tube was thus inserted. The method involved only a few complications. It can be recommended as an alternative to existing operative methods for endoesophageal intubation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les auteurs font état du traitement de 364 malades atteints de cancer de la partie distale de l'oesophage et de la jonction oesophagogastrique. Quatre-vingt deux pour cent (82%) des malades ont été opérés, le taux de résection ne dépassant pas 52%. Lors de l'intervention 230 de ces sujets présentaient des métastases lymphatiques et 115 présentaient des métastases à distance au niveau des organes abdominaux. Le taux de résection fut plus élevé chez les sujets qui présentaient un cancer squameux par rapport à ceux qui présentaient un adénocarcinome. Environ 2/3 des résections furent considérés comme “curatives”. La mortalité opératoire au total s'est élevée à 24% mais son taux a sensiblement décru au cours des 10 dernières années. Le taux de survie à 5 ans est le même que celui publié dans d'autres séries. Il est à noter que le taux de survie chez les patients atteints de cancer squameux fut nettement plus élevé que celui des sujets porteurs d'un adénocarcinome. Si la résection chirurgicale est impossible il est indiqué d'établir un court-circuit digestif au-dessus de la lésion ou d'intuber celle-ci. Ces méthodes donnent une rémission satisfaisante dans la majorité des cas.
    Abstract: Resumen Este informe se refiere al tratamiento de 364 pacientes con carcinoma de la porción distal del esófago y de la unión cardioesofágica. El 82% de los pacientes fué sometido a operación y la tasa de resección fué de 52%. En la operación se encontró que 230 pacientes tenían metástasis a ganglios linfáticos y que 115 tenían metástasis a órganos abdominales. La tasa de resección fué significativamente mayor en pacientes con carcinoma escamocelular que en los pacientes con adenocarcinoma, y alrededor de 2/3 de las resecciones fueron consideradas como tratamiento “curativo”. La mortalidad operatoria para la totalidad del período fué alta (24%), pero disminuyó en los últimos 10 anos. La tasa de supervivencia a cinco años después de la resección fué del mismo nivel que en otras series; la supervivencia fué considerablemente mayor en pacientes con carcinoma escamocelular que en los pacientes con adenocarcinoma. Cuando la resección quirúrgica no es practicable, está indicada una esofagogastrostomía de tipo “bypass” o la intubación. Estos procedimientos proveen una paliación satisfactoria en la mayoría de los pacientes al mejorar la calidad de la vida, la cual es bastante superior cuando el paciente puede corner y beber.
    Notes: Abstract The treatment of 364 patients with carcinoma of the distal part of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction is reported. Eighty-two percent of the patients were subjected to operation and the resect ability rate was 52%. At operation 230 patients had lymph node metastases and 115 patients had distant metastases to abdominal organs. The resection rate was significantly higher in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than in patients with adenocarcinoma, and about two-thirds of the resections were considered as “curative” treatment. The operative mortality rate for the entire period was high (24%), but the mortality decreased in the last 10-year period. The 5-year survival rate after resection was in the same level as in other series; the survival rate for patients with squamous cell carcinoma was considerably higher than for patients with adenocarcinoma. If surgical resection is not feasible, surgical bypass of the obstructing lesion is indicated. This alternative procedure gives satisfactory palliation in the majority of patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A fish respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain in vivo respiratory-cardiovascular and chloroethane gill flux data on transected channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Methods used for spinal transection, attachment of an oral membrane (respiratory mast), placement and attachment of blood cannulas and urine catheters are described. Respiratory physiology, cardiac output and chemical extraction efficiencies for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachloroethane (HCE) were determined on 419–990 g catfish. The overall mean values (± s.d.) for ventilation volume (Qv), effective respiratory volume (Qw), oxygen consumption (Vo2 and percentage utilization of oxygen (U) were 17-3 ±4–71 h−1 kg−1, 9·8±l·71 h−1 kg−1, 71·6±12·5mg h−1 kg−1, and 49± 10%, respectively, while cardiac output calculated via the Fick Method was 2·4±0·61 h−1 kg−1. Additional measurements were made on ventilation rate (Vr), total plasma protein, haematocrit (Hct), and urine volume; while both arterial and venous blood were analysed for pH, oxygen partial pressure (P02), carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2), total oxygen (To2), total carbon dioxide (Tco2) and total ammonia (TAMM). Physiological measurements taken at 24 h were not significantly different from those taken at 48 h and indicated no deterioration of the in vivo preparation. All of these values agreed well with literature values on UTitransected channel catfish, except for Hct which was lower for cannulated animals used in this study. Overall, these data provide strong support for the use of transected channel catfish for in vivo collection of physiological and chemical gill flux data.The mean initial chemical extraction efficiencies for TCE, PCE and HCE were 41, 61 and 73%, respectively. Chemical clearances (ClX) for these same three chemicals were 5·9, 9·3 and 10·8 1 h−1 kg−1, respectively. The approximate 1: 1 relationship between effective respiratory volume (Qw) and chemical clearance (Clx) indicated that branchial uptake of PCE and HCE was water flow-limited. Chemical gill flux observed for channel catfish and chloroethanes was similar to that observed for rainbow trout in previous studies and provided further support for the flow-limited model of chemical flux across fish gills.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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